What if Rajiv Gandhi hadn’t unlocked the Babri Masjid in 1986?

This article first appeared in the online version of the newsmagazine
‘Outlook India’ (issue dt. 23 August 2004) at the URL

In 1985, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi gave in to Muslim pressure in the Shah Bano affair. Overruling a secular court�s decision that the repudiated wife Shah Bano was entitled to alimony from her ex-husband, he enacted a law abolishing the alimony provision in conformity with the Shari�a. Since India, unlike secular states, already had religion-based Civil Codes, this concession merely brought the minor matter of alimony under the purview of the prevailing arrangement. More importantly, it prevented riots.

Only months later, Gandhi restored the balance by giving the Hindus something as well: he ordered the locks on the Ram Janmabhoomi Babri Masjid in Ayodhya removed. Until then, a priest had been permitted to perform puja once a year for the idols installed there in 1949. Now, all Hindus were given access to what they consider as the birthplace of Rama, the prince posthumously deified as an incarnation of Vishnu.

Fundamentally, this decision didn�t alter the Ayodhya equation. Architecturally, the building was and remained a mosque, while functionally, it had been and continued to be a Hindu temple. That is why in my opinion, not taking this decision wouldn�t have changed the Ayodhya developments except in their timing. The different players, their strategies and goals, and their resolve to pursue these, all remained the same. The Babri Masjid Action Committee and the Vishva Hindu Parishad would have gone about their �business� just the same.

However, the VHP would have been forced to continue pushing the rather petty demand for removing the locks, rather than move on to the more ambitious and more mobilizing next step of planning the construction of a new temple. Most probably, the BJP would likewise have reaped smaller dividends from such a campaign. In 1989, it might not have jumped as high as 86 seats. Conversely, Congress might not have lost the North-Indian Muslim vote to the Janata Dal. In 1989, it could have remained just strong enough to cobble together a coalition rather than leave the initiative to the unwholesome and unstable Janata-BJP-Communist combine. So, at the level of party politics, Rajiv Gandhi�s decision may have made a big difference. Continue reading “What if Rajiv Gandhi hadn’t unlocked the Babri Masjid in 1986?”


Traditionalist ulema lead educational revolution in Kerala

Written by Yoginder Sikand · December 13, 2007 · 452 views

December 13, 2007

Kerala’s Muslims are unique among their co-religionists in India in fashioning a system of education that enables their children to attend both religious as well as regular schools at the same time. Muslims account for around a fourth of Kerala’s population, and the state’s Muslims, known as Mapillas, are among the most literate of the various Muslim communities in the country. Madrasas and schools run by literally hundreds of Muslim religious organizations in the state have made this possible. A recent study by Zubair Hudawi, himself a madrasa graduate from Kerala and presently a doctoral candidate at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, titled ‘Development and Modernisation of Religious Education in Kerala: The Role of the Samastha Kerala Jameyyat ul-Ulama’, discusses this contribution in great detail.

The Samastha Kerala Jameyyat ul-Ulama (SKJU) represents a traditionalist theological position, quite opposed to Islamic modernists on numerous points. Yet, as Hudawi argues, it has not hesitated from championing modern education. Hudawi, who spent several years studying at the Dar ul-Huda Islamic Academy, the SKJU’s leading centre for higher Islamic education, seeks to explain this enigma through an in-depth analysis of the organisation’s evolution and development, arguing against the notion that the traditionalist ulema are necessarily and wholly opposed to ‘modernity’. He argues that the SKJU is an excellent example of a traditionalist Muslim religious organization that, rather than opposing ‘modernity’ outright, actually facilitates it, albeit selectively. Thus, today, he writes, the SKJU runs not just several thousand madrasas but also numerous English- and Malayalam-medium schools, and scores of women’s and technical colleges. Continue reading “Traditionalist ulema lead educational revolution in Kerala”

Policy Exchange Thinktank fabricated report on “extremist Mosques”

This is just another example of the propaganda war against Muslims being waged by the Western media. Michael Gove is a known Islamophobe, and he is the person responsible for producing that fabricated report on the “hijacking of British Islam”. This is another example of the neo-con extremists propagating their anti-Islamic agenda through the media. Micheal Gove has links to the American neo-cons and is a known sympathiser to their cause.


A rightwing thinktank which claimed to have uncovered extremist literature on sale at dozens of British mosques was last night accused of basing a report on fabricated evidence.

The report by Policy Exchange alleged that books condoning violent jihad and encouraging hatred of Christians, Jews and gays were being sold in a quarter of the 100 mosques visited. But BBC2’s Newsnight said examination of receipts provided by the researchers to verify their purchases showed some had been written by the same person – even though they purported to come from different mosques. Several receipts also misspelled the names or addresses of the mosques where the books were supposedly sold.

The report, the Hijacking of British Islam, was based on the work of four teams of two researchers each who visited 100 mosques. They claimed to have found the controversial material in bookshops attached to 25 mosques, including one at Regent’s Park, London, and others in Manchester, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Oxford and High Wycombe.

Inayat Bunglawala, assistant secretary general of the Muslim Council of Britain, said: “Policy Exchange produced a report that was given a lot of publicity, and Newsnight deserve credit for exposing the incredibly shoddy and dubious methodology that Policy Exchange have resorted to. It would seem that Policy Exchange had already decided what they wanted to say about mosques and just went out to find or should I say invent the evidence to justify their prejudices.”

Guardian, 13 December 2007

Watch video of yesterday’s Newsnight programme here

For Osama Saeed’s comments, see Rolled Up Trousers, 12 December 2007

The Newsnight investigation concentrated on mosques in and around London but, as Osama points out, questions about the credibility of the Hijacking of British Islam report were raised at the time by the Edinburgh Central Mosque – where nobody had come across the literature that Policy Exchange claimed to have discovered on their premises.

Islam’s Path East: China

One of Islam’s main entry points into China was the Pearl River port of Quanzhou.

The majority of China’s Muslims are Turkic peoples living in the vast Xinjiang region of northwest China. The rest are mainly Hui – either descendants of Chinese converts to Islam or the offspring of Chinese intermarriages with Muslim immigrants whose appearance is distinctly Chinese. They live in sizeable communities in the former Silk Road oases of western and central China, in the southern province of Yunnan, and in the industrial cities and ports of the east. 

Contacts between Muslims and Chinese began very early. Arab merchants traded in silk even before the advent of Islam, and tradition has it that the new religion was brought to their port-city trading colonies by Muslim missionaries in the seventh century.

In 755, a contingent of 4000 soldiers, mostly Muslim Turks, was sent by the Abbasid caliph Abu Jafar al-Mansur to help the Chinese emperor Su Tsung quell a revolt by one of his military commanders, An LuShan. Following the recapture of the imperial capital, Ch’angan (today’s Xian), these soldiers settled in China, married Chinese wives and founded inland Muslim colonies similar to those established by the traders on the coast. 

Islam made its first real inroads into what is now western China in the middle of the 10th century, with the conversion of Sultan Sutuq Bughrakhan of Kashgar and his subsequent conquest of the Silk Road oases of Yarkand and Khotan in southwest Xinjiang. 

During the Song Dynasty (960 – 1279), China experienced spectacular economic growth. This stimulated expansion of the Muslim mercantile communities – particularly in Ch’ang – an, the eastern terminus of the Silk Roads, and in the port cities of Quanzhou and Guangzhou, where Muslims largely governed the internal affairs of their own neighborhoods, building mosques and appointing qadis to adjudicate according to Islamic law.

But although some Chinese merchants involved in international trade did become Muslims, other converts were few, and Islam in China was confined largely to Muslim immigrants and their descendants. Until, that is, the Mongol invasion overthrew the Song Dynasty and ushered in what Chinese Muslims regard as the “golden age” of Islam in China. Continue reading “Islam’s Path East: China”

mezquitas (mosques) of Cordoba,Spain

The Great Mosque of Cordoba extended and revised architectural review

When the Umayyad were supplanted by the Abbasids in 750 and the centre of Islam relocated from Damascus, Syria to Baghdad, Iraq, a Umayyad prince named Abed Al-Rahman I moved to Spain where Muslims were already established & founded a dynasty with Cordoba as its capital. The kingdom flourished, lasting for nearly 300 years (756-1031). In 929 a restored Umayyad caliphate was set up in Cordoba, in rivalry with the Abbasids in Baghdad: by any standard, Cordoba was the richest, most sophisticated city in Europe.

The Great Mosque of
Cordoba’s original construction under Abed Al-Rahman I – Part 1
The Great Mosque of
Cordoba‘s original construction under Abed Al-Rahman I – Part 2
The first mosque extension under Abed Al-Rahman II
Building work on the Great Mosque of Cordoba by Abed AI-Rahman III

The extension under al-Hakam II
The last extension under Al-Mansor

The Great Mosque Of Cordoba’s Pictures


The Great Mosque, Cordoba


The Great Mosque of Cordoba’s original construction under Abed Al-Rahman I – Part 1
The Great Mosque of
Cordoba‘s original construction under Abed Al-Rahman I – Part 2
The first mosque extension under Abed Al-Rahman II
Building work on the Great Mosque of Cordoba by Abed AI-Rahman III

The extension under al-Hakam II
The last extension under Al-Mansor

The Great Mosque Of Cordoba’s Pictures

Mosques in Spain


Related books

Islamic Art and Architecture: From Isfahan to the Taj Mahal Art historian Henri Stierlin explores a dazzling 1,000-year-old decorative tradition in Islamic Art and Architecture: From Isfahan to the Taj Mahal.

Gardens, Landscape, and Vision in the Palaces of Islamic Spain The Gardens, Landscape, and Vision in the Palaces of Islamic Spain offers a new interpretation of the history of gardens in Spain during the period of Islamic rule from the eighth through the fifteenth centuries.

Islam’s Claim on Spain

The white minaret of the new Great Mosque of Granada doesn’t overshadow a nearby church but is nonetheless a testament to Spanish Muslims’ pride in their history in “Al Andalus,” the region of southern Spain now known as Andalusia

GRANADA, Spain – Across a valley of fragrant cedars and orange trees, worshipers at the pristine Great Mosque of Granada look out at the Alhambra, the 700-year-old citadel and monument to the heyday of Islamic glory.

Granada’s Muslims chose the hilltop location precisely with the view, and its unmistakable symbolism, in mind.

It took them more than 20 years to build the mosque, the first erected here in half a millennium, after they conquered the objections of city leaders and agreed, ultimately, to keep the minaret shorter than the steeple on the Catholic Iglesia de San Nicolas next door.

Cloistered nuns on the other side of the mosque added a few feet to the wall enclosing their convent, as if to say they wanted neither to be seen nor to see.

Many of Spain’s Muslims long for an Islamic revival to reclaim their legendary history, and inaugurating the Great Mosque last year was the most visible gesture. But horrific bombings by Muslim extremists that killed nearly 200 people in Madrid on March 11 have forced Spain’s Muslims and non-Muslims to reassess their relationship, and turned historical assumptions on their head.

“We are a people trying to return to our roots,” said Anwar Gonzalez, 34, a Granada native who converted to Islam 17 years ago. “But it’s a bad time to be a Muslim.”

Spain has a long, rich and complex history interwoven with the Muslim and Arab world, from its position as the center of Islamic Europe in the last millennium to today’s confrontation with a vast influx of Muslim immigrants. Continue reading “Islam’s Claim on Spain”

The Story of Moses and The Guide

The Story of Moses and The Guide
By: Ibn Kathir

Nabi Musa, or the Tomb of Prophet Moses (pbuh), lies 11 km south of Jericho and 20 km east of Jerusalem in the Judean wilderness.Although the last chapter in the Book of Deuteronomy tells us that Moses (pbuh) died and was buried on the other side of the Jordan River (Duet 34) and that no one knew where his Tomb was. Muslim tradition holds that Salah Eddin had a dream in which it had been revealed to him the site where the prophet Moses (pbuh) was to be respected and subsequently he built a cenotaph and on top of it a mosque.

One day, Moses delivered such an impressive sermon that all who heard it were deeply moved. Someone in the congregation asked: ” O Messenger of Allah, is there another man on earth more learned than you?” Moses replied: “No!”, believing so, as Allah had given him the power of miracles and honored him with the Torah.

However, Allah revealed to Moses that no man could know all there is to know, nor would one messenger alone be the custodian of all knowledge. There would always be another who knew what others did not. Moses asked Allah: “O Allah, where is this man? I would like to meet him and learn from him.” He also asked for a sign to this person’s identity.

Allah instructed him to take a live fish in a water-filled vessel. The point at which the fish disappears, he would find the man he sought. Moses set out on his journey, accompanied by a young man who carried the vessel with the fish. They reached a place where two rivers met and decided to rest there. Instantly, Moses fell asleep. Continue reading “The Story of Moses and The Guide”

Sanhedrins & their claim to The Third Temple

Third Temple
Rabbi: Muslims would agree to Third Temple

Rabbi Dov Stein of the Jewish Sanhedrin has told YNet News that he believes Muslims would agree to the rebuilding of the Third Temple, and that Islam has not always been so hostile to Judaism. Stein believes the Al-Aqsa Mosque was built to protect the Temple Mount site specifically for the rebuilding of the Third Temple. The Rabbi made the remarks after it was revealed that the Sanhedrin has decided to purchase a flock of sheep to sacrifice at the Temple Mount site this Pesach (Passover).Quote: “Asked if his organization sought to rebuild the third Temple, Stein’s answer was unequivocal. “We want to establish the Temple again. Unfortunately, standing in our way is a hostile regime, the Israeli government, and rabbis who for political interest don’t want this to happen.” Stein even suggested that Muslims would agree to the project, saying: “The Omar Mosque (the Dome of the Rock), built by Khalif Omar, was actually intended to safeguard the site for the Jews. Islam hasn’t always been so hostile. Despite its hatred and massacres against us, Islam sees in Judaism a source and a guide. I think the moment will come that Muslims understand the need to build the Temple and go along with us.”

The Sanhedrin is not recognized by the Israeli government, but it claims to be the highest legal body in the land of Israel. The Sanhedrin is seeking to abolish the secular government and replace it with a monarchy that would rule by the Torah. For this reason I doubt the Sanhedrin will get their way this Passover. The excavations at the Mugrabi gate have been controversial enough without religious Jews plotting the destruction of the Mosque of Omar and the rebuilding of the Third Temple. The Bible says it will eventually happen though, but we’re not told how. Who knows, perhaps when the False Prophet appears on the scene, who will seemingly unite apostate Christendom, Judaism and Islam, maybe then the Muslims will “understand the need to build the Temple”.

Source YNet News

Third Temple
Sanhedrin buys flock to sacrifice at Temple site
This link from Cheryl and Jennifer…

The recently formed Sanhedrin, a legal body consisting of 71 prominent Rabbis in Israel, has arranged to purchase a flock of sheep for sacrificial rituals ahead of the upcoming Passover. The Sanhedrin was formed several years ago, and was one of the first news items that prompted me to start this website. The Sanhedrin had not existed for over 1600 years, having been dissolved after the diaspora. The group reformed on the 13th of October, 2004, and are actively seeking to re-establish the monarchy of Israel. The Sanhedrin considers itself the highest legal body in the land of Israel, and opposed the government’s decision to disengage from Gaza, stating that it was against Torah. They are also researching the exact location of where Solomon’s Temple once stood to enable Continue reading “Sanhedrins & their claim to The Third Temple”

Race comes to the fore in Malaysia mosque debate

By Jalil Hamid

KUALA LUMPUR (Reuters) – Chinese Malaysians who have embraced Islam are testing the government over a mosque issue that analysts say highlights a racial divide in the multi-ethnic country.

Malaysia, which boasts of religious diversity and where just over half of its population are Muslims of Malay descent, has spurned applications by Chinese Muslims to open their first mosques, officials said.

The authorities argued that having separate mosques would segregate Muslims and could anger the majority Malays, who by definition are Muslims. Continue reading “Race comes to the fore in Malaysia mosque debate”

Hindutva & Ayodhya

Babri Masjid It is twelve years since the Hindutva fanatics demolished the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya. Perhaps no other day in independent India’s history signifies and symbolizes the communal polarization, mutual hatred, and a contempt for rule of law, so blatant in our society today, as that black Sunday in December 92. We saw Golwalkar in action, “teaching” Indian Muslims how they should lead their lives in India as “second rate” citizens — citizens without any rights. Though I had known it very well that these fanatics could stoop to any low to gain political mileage, I hadn’t thought till that day, in fact till the All India Radio confirmed the demolition in its evening news, that the struture would actually be grounded. I had the rather simplistic impression that the “karsevaks” would enter the disputed site, with the help of the friendly police, and might even damage the masjid a little bit, but wouldn’t dare to do the total demolition. As a not so politically conscious teenager, this perhaps was understandable. Unfortunately the then prime minister Narasimha Rao, it appears now, was just as naive, willing to trust an Advani and a Kalyan Singh on their word that the Masjid wouldn’t be demolished. In the days followed, people were behaving in pretty strange — or was that more natural then? — ways. I could see many friends of mine from the Muslim community keeping a distance from me and other non-Muslims. The behaviour of several of my Hindu friends was even more strange. Many were ecstatic about the destruction that took place in Ayodhya — several ordinary Hindu teenagers parrotted local RSS hooligans, for a short period though. When our college reopened after a fortnight of bandhs, hartals, strikes, and a general everything-isn’t-alright atmosphere, my closest friend confessed to me that though he couldn’t justify Gandhi’s assassination — many on the “secular” side were talking a lot about the parallels between the Masjid demolition and Gandhi’s assassination — he sympathized with Godse’s position. As one can see, talking in extremes was the norm. This was the period when I started taking a keener interest in political matters. Though never very active in day-to-day activism, I decided to pay more attention to what such local activists say. I found that those who actually work with people and their problems weren’t floundering at difficult times, unlike some of the bookish liberal intellectuals. In societal matters, words of those who are willing to make sacrifices, started appealing to me more, than the dull rigour of “academic” logic. Back to Babri Masjid, for a “secularist”, today it is politically correct to say that the issue should be settled in court. On the whole, our judiciary is exemplary, and I believe this issue can be settled in court. But I think a truly secular government should be willing to undo the wrong, and the right thing to do is to rebuild the masjid there. If I advocate anything less than this, I can’t but feel that I’m indirectly siding with the demolishers.

Black day of so called Indian Secularism

(Babri Masjid and associated complex were totally destroyed on December 6, 1992.)

“Every civil building connected with Mahommedan tradition should be levelled to the ground without regard to antiquarian veneration or artistic predilection.” British Prime Minister Palmerston’s Letter No. 9 dated 9 October 1857, to Lord Canning, Viceroy of India, Canning Papers.


‘One group of karsevaks blocked all entry points into Ayodhya to keep out central security forces, while another began to loot and burn Muslim homes’

Did the leaders know beforehand what was going to happen that afternoon? There can be no final answer to that question. Perhaps some did, others did not. Certainly one answer seems to emerge from our narrative, another from the likes of editor Chandan Mitra. Not that the leadership of the parivar comes off any better from Mitra’s graphic description of their behaviour during that crucial period when the attack on the mosque was mounted — the giggling political sanyasins, Uma Bharati and Ritambhara; Joshi overcome by the size of the mammoth crowd; Singhal, convinced that the karseva would go along expected lines and giving precise orders, to a crowd that could not care less, about how to wipe and clean the site of the projected temple; the moment of reckoning when the crowd goes berserk on seeing two karsevaks on the top of the domes of the mosque while the high command sat, ‘tense’, ‘sombre-faced’, ‘hopelessly sullen’, with faces like ‘grim death’; the lament of Rajendra Singh, the de facto supremo of the RSS, ‘the ministry is gone’; and finally the pathetic and belated attempts to calm down the crowd by the leaders taking turn in appealing to the karsevaks, while others like Acharya Dharmendra tried to interest an uninterested crowd in a bhajan. Continue reading “Black day of so called Indian Secularism”

Virtues of Madina

Virtues of Madinah

Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 30:

Volume 3, Book 30, Number 91:

Narrated Anas:
The Prophet said, “Madinah is a sanctuary from that place to that. Its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins (bad deeds), then he will incur the curse of Allah, the angels, and all the people.” (See Hadith No. 409, Vol 9).

Volume 3, Book 30, Number 92:

Narrated Anas:
The Prophet came to Madinah and ordered a mosque to be built and said, “O Bani Najjar! Suggest to me the price (of your land).” They said, “We do not want its price except from Allah” (i.e. they wished for a reward from Allah for giving up their land freely). So, the Prophet ordered the graves of the pagans to be dug out and the land to be levelled, and the date-palm trees to be cut down. The cut date-palms were fixed in the direction of the Qibla of the mosque.

Volume 3, Book 30, Number 93:

Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, “I have made Madinah a sanctuary between its two Harrat (Volcanic Land).” The Prophet went to the tribe of Bani Haritha and said (to them), “I see that you have gone out of the sanctuary,” but looking around, he added, “No, you are inside the sanctuary.”

Volume 3, Book 30, Number 94:

Narrated ‘Ali:
We have nothing except the Book of Allah and this written paper from the Prophet (where-in is written:) Madinah is a sanctuary from the ‘Air Mountain to such and such a place, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits a sin, or gives shelter to such an innovator in it will incur the curse of Allah, the angels, and all the people, none of his compulsory or optional good deeds of worship will be accepted. And the asylum (of protection) granted by any Muslim is to be secured (respected) by all the other Muslims; and whoever betrays a Muslim in this respect incurs the curse of Allah, the angels, and all the people, and none of his compulsory or optional good deeds of worship will be accepted, and whoever (freed slave) befriends (take as masters) other than his manumitters without their permission incurs the curse of Allah, the angels, and all the people, and none of his compulsory or optional good deeds of worship will be accepted. Continue reading “Virtues of Madina”

“Whoever prays Fajr will be under the protection of Allaah”

Meaning of the hadeeth: “Whoever prays Fajr will be under the protection of Allaah”

What is the meaning of the hadeeth of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): “Whoever prays Fajr in congregation will be under the protection of Allaah”? How can I be under the protection of Allaah?
If a man prays at home in congregation with his wife, is it the same as the prayer in congregation that is mentioned in the hadeeth?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Muslim (657) narrated that Jundub ibn ‘Abd-Allaah said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever prays Fajr is under the protection of Allaah, so do not fall short with regard to the rights of Allaah, for anyone who does that, Allaah will seize him and will throw him on his face into the Fire of Hell.”

Al-Teebi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The reason why Fajr prayer is singled out for mention here is because of the hardship that it entails, and performing it is a sign of a man’s sincerity and faith, and whoever is a sincere believer is under the protection of Allaah. Sharh Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh by al-Teebi (2/184).

There are two scholarly views on the meaning of the hadeeth:

1 – The hadeeth indicates that it is forbidden to harm any Muslim who prays Fajr, for the one who prays Fajr is under the care and protection of Allaah, and it is not permissible for anyone to harm the one whom Allaah has protected. If anyone harms him, he has transgressed and violated the protection of Allaah, so he deserves the punishment of Allaah for having transgressed His protection and for harming the one who is under His protection. See Fayd al-Qadeer by al-Manaawi (6/164).

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Sharh Riyaadh al-Saaliheen (1/591):

This indicates that it is obligatory to respect the Muslims who affirm their Islam by praying Fajr, because no one offers Fajr prayer but a believer. And it is not permissible for anyone to transgress against them. End quote.

This is also indicated by the report narrated by al-Tabaraani in al-Mu’jam al-Awsat (4/5) with his isnaad. Al-Albaani said in Saheeh al-Targheeb (1/110): it is saheeh because of corroborating reports.

It was narrated that al-A’mash said: Saalim ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar was sitting with al-Hajjaaj and al-Hajjaaj said to him: Get up and strike this person’s neck. Saalim picked up the sword and took hold of the man, and headed towards the gate of the palace. Then his father looked at him when he was taking this man out and said: Is he really going to do it? He repeated it two or three times, and when he took him out, Saalim said to him: Did you pray Fajr? He said: Yes. He said: Then take whichever path you want. Then he came and threw down the sword and al-Hajjaaj said to him: Did you strike his neck? He said: No. He said: Why not? He said: I heard my father say: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever prays Fajr is under the protection of Allaah until evening comes.”

2 – What is meant by the hadeeth is a warning against abandoning or neglecting Fajr prayer, because abandoning it is a transgression of the covenant between a person and his Lord. This covenant is prayer and regular performance of prayer.

Al-Baydaawi said: It may be that what is meant by protection is that prayer brings security (from the punishment of Allaah), so what is meant is: Do not abandon Fajr prayer, and do not be heedless about it, lest you break the covenant that exists between you and your Lord, and Allaah seizes you, for whomever He seizes He will throw on his face into the Fire. That is because Fajr prayer is somewhat difficult and burdensome. So performing it is a sign of the believer’s sincerity, and the one who is sincere is under the protection of Allaah. End quote from Fayd al-Qadeer (6/164).

Some scholars are of the view that the virtue of entering the protection of Allaah that is mentioned in this hadeeth applies only to the one who prays Fajr in congregation. Hence al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) gave it the title, in his editing of Saheeh Muslim, of “Chapter on the virtue of praying ‘Isha’ and Fajr in congregation.” He was preceded in that by al-Mundhiri (may Allaah have mercy on him), who quoted the hadeeth in his book al-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb under the heading “Encouragement to pray Fajr and ‘Isha’, in particular, in congregation, and a warning against staying away from them.”

This apparently is what Imam Muslim did, as he narrated nearly twenty ahaadeeth before this hadeeth, and umpteen ahaadeeth after it, all of them speaking about prayer in congregation and related matters.

Hence al-Haafiz ‘Abd al-Haqq al-Ishbeeli narrated it in his compilation of al-Saheehayn, in a chapter entitled “Prayer in congregation” (923).

Al-Mubaarakfoori quoted the same hadeeth in Sharh al-Tirmidhi, where he said: “The one who prays Fajr” in congregation. End quote.

Ibn ‘Allaan said in Daleel al-Faaliheen (3/550): i.e., prayer in congregation, as mentioned in the other report.

This is supported further by the hadeeth of Abu Bakrah (may Allaah be pleased with him): “Whoever prays Fajr in congregation will be under the protection of Allaah …” al-Haythami (may Allaah have mercy on him) said (2/92): Narrated by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer, and its men are the men of saheeh. Al-Mundhiri said in al-Targheeb: the men of its isnaad are the men of saheeh. Al-Albaani said: It is saheeh because of corroborating evidence. See: Saheeh al-Targheeb, no. 461.

Note: This additional material was quoted by al-Manaawi also, and he attributed it to Muslim, but this is a mistake on his part. The additional word “in congregation” is not found in Muslim, or in any of the six books.

And it was said that the virtue is attained by everyone who prays Fajr on time, even if he does not pray with the congregation, because no such limitation is mentioned in the report of Muslim or any other author of the six books.

This appears to be the meaning understood by Ibn Maajah (may Allaah be pleased with him) as he included this hadeeth in his Sunan in a chapter entitled “The Muslims are under the protection of Allaah,” in Kitaab al-Fitan.

This was also suggested by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (6/36): “Chapter affirming the protection of Allaah for the one who prays Fajr.” This applies to all those who pray.

3 – The prescribed prayer in congregation that is enjoined and brings the reward is prayer in congregation in the mosque, and not any other congregation. This has been explained in detail in questions no. 8918, 49947 and 72398.

There are several reports that speak of the virtue of offering Fajr prayer in congregation:

In Tafseer al-Tabari (3/270), in the commentary on the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “and those who pray and beg Allaah’s Pardon in the last hours of the night” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:17], it is narrated that Zayd ibn Aslam said: They are the ones who attend Fajr in congregation.

In their commentary on the verse “Their sides forsake their beds, to invoke their Lord in fear and hope” [al-Sajdah 32:16], Abu’l-Darda’ and al-Dahhaak said: ‘Isha’ and Fajr prayer in congregation.

See: Zaad al-Maseer (6/339)

In Saheeh Muslim (656) it is narrated from ‘Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever prays ‘Isha’ in congregation, it is as if he spent half the night in prayer, and whoever prays Fajr in congregation, it is as if he spent the whole night in prayer.”

Al-Bukhaari (615) and Muslim (437) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If they knew what there is (of reward) in ‘Isha’ and Fajr prayer, they would come to them even if they had to crawl.”

‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: To attend Fajr prayer in congregation is dearer to me than spending the night in prayer. Al-Istidhkaar (2/147).


And Allaah knows best.



Errors which happen during Hajj are called Jinaayaat. There are two types of jinaayaat:

(1) Omission of the Waajib acts of Hajj.
(2) Commission of the Hajj prohibitions.

    The prohibitions of Hajj are of two kinds:

(1) The prohibitions of Ihraam.
(2) The prohibitions of the Haram Shareef (the Holy Place).

Nine errors pertain to Ihraam and two errors to Haram.  Thus, there are altogether eleven errors regarding the prohibitions of Hajj. These are as follows:
(1) To apply perfume.
(2) For men to wear sewn clothes.
(3) To cover the head and f ace.
(4) To remove lice from one’s body.
(5) To kill lice.
(6) To remove hair from the body.
(7) To cut nails.
(8) To indulge in sexual relationship.
(9) To hunt or molest game (wild animals on land).
(10) To hunt in the Holy Precincts.
(11) To cut the grass or trees of the Haram.


There are several principles governing the errors committed. These will now be explained to facilitate better understanding of the errors.

FIRST PRINCIPLE: There are four ways in which the prohibitions of Hajj are committed:

(1) The prohibition is committed fully but because of a valid reason.

(2) The prohibition is committed partially but because of a valid reason.

(3) The prohibition is committed fully but without valid reason.

(4) The prohibition is committed partially but without valid reason.
The Hukm (effect and rule) of each of these four ways of commission is
different. The ruling applicable to each one is as follows:
(a) If the prohibition was committed fully, but because of a valid reason, Dum or Fasting or Sadqah becomes Waajib.

(b) If the prohibition was committed partially, but because of a valid reason, either Fasting or Sadqah is Waajib.

(c) If the prohibition was committed fully, but without valid reason, only Dum is Waajib. In this case there is no choice.

(d) If the prohibition was committed partially, but without valid reason, only Sadqah is Waajib. Again, here is no choice.
SECOND PRINCIPLE: Dum is one goat or one sheep or a seventh share of a cow or camel.

THIRD PRINCIPLE: A whole cow or a whole camel is incumbent on only two occasions, as follows:

(1) Making Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, i.e. the greater impurity or janaabat.

(2) To indulge in sexual intercourse after Wuqoof-e-Arafaat, but before shaving the head.

FOURTH PRINCIPLE: All conditions and requirements applicable to Qurbaani animals apply to the Dum animals as well.

FIFTH PRINCIPLE: Sadqah in this context is half a Saa’ (approximately 2,5 kg.) of wheat or the amount which is usually paid as Fitrah.
SIXTH PRINCIPLE: The Qaarin who commits jinaayaat in Ihraam before making Umrah is liable for two penalties since he is in two states of Ihraam. The Mufrid is liable for one penalty since he is in the state of one Ihraam. However, if the Qaarin entered the Meeqaat limits without Ihraam, only one Dum will be Waajib on him.

SEVENTH PRINCIPLE: Regarding the jinaayaat of the Haram and in the penalty pertaining to game on land, there is a choice of three ways of discharging the penalty. These are:
(1) The wild animal is to be valued and if a sacrificial animal (Dum) is available for this value or price, an animal will be purchased and slaughtered.

(2) This amount may be given in charity.

(3) One may fast instead.
Any one of these three penalties will suffice. If the option of fasting is chosen, one should consult an Alim for ascertaining the method of calculating the number of fasts to be kept. This number differs.

EIGHTH PRINCIPLE: Kaffaarah (penalty or compensation) is obligatory
even if a prohibition of Ihraam is committed on account of a valid reason.
NINTH PRINCIPLE: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted without valid reason, penalty is incumbent.

TENTH PRINCIPLE: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted on account of valid reason, penalty is not obligatory.
ELEVENTH PRINCIPLE: penalty is not incumbent on a minor nor on an insane person. However, if one became insane after having entered the state of Ihraam and later regained sanity, then penalty is obligatory for any omission of Waajib acts which had occurred.

TWELFTH PRINCIPLE: If one is unable to discharge the penalty immediately, payment at a later date will be valid.
Deliberate commission of jinaayaat is a grave and major sin. Hajj is not accepted if jinaayaat are committed deliberately.
Discharging the penalty of Jinaayaat does not set one free from the sin. After payment of the penalty it is essential to make taubah (repent) and seek forgiveness from Allah Ta’ala.


(1) If one enters the precincts of the Meeqaat without Ihraam, Dum is Waajib. If the Ihraam is adopted after entering the Meeqaat, one Dum is Waajib. However, if one returns to the Meeqaat and dons Ihraam there, then the Dum penalty falls away.

(2) One who enters the Meeqaat without Ihraam, may return to the Meeqaat as long as one has not entered Makkah Mukarramah and commenced the acts of Hajj. Until such time that one Shaut of Tawaaf has not been rendered, one may return to the Meeqaat and recite the Talbiyah there. In this case the Dum penalty falls away.

(3) The penalty of a camel or Sadqah does not apply for the omission of any Waajib act of Umrah. In this case only a sheep or goat is obligatory. However, since the Ihraam of Umrah and the Ihraam of Hajj are the same, commission of the prohibitions of Ihraam will make Sadqah incumbent.

(4) If the Tawaaf of Umrah, the whole of it or part of it, even if it is just one Shaut, was performed in the state of either Hadth- e-Akbar (janaabat) or Hadth-e-Asghar (without wudhu), then Dum is Waajib.

(5) If Tawaaf-e-Qudoom, Nafl Tawaaf or Tawaaf-e-Wida’ were performed without wudhu, the Sadqah penalty is half Saa’ wheat (the amount of Sadaqatul Fitr) for every Shaut of the Tawaaf rendered without wudhu. If the amount or value of the Sadqah for all the Shauts is equal to the price of a Dum, then slightly less than the price of a Dum should be given as Sadqah. This same rule applies to less than half of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat made without wudhu.

(6) If the whole or the greater part of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat is made in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar (janaabat), the penalty is a camel or a cow.

(7) If less than half of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat or the whole of Tawaaf-e-Qudoom or Tawaaf-e-Wida’ or Tawaaf-e- Nafl is made in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, the penalty of one goat is Waajib.

(8) If Tawaaf Ziyaarat was made in the state of janaabat and Tawaaf Wida’ was made in the state of tahaarat (purity) during the days of Nahr (10th, 11th, 12th), then this Tawaaf Wida will be considered to be Tawaaf Ziyaarat. Tawaaf Wida’ will have to be repeated. If it is not repeated, Dum is Waajib.

Thousands try to pray in Al Aqsa Mosque: Israeli forces open fire


Thousands try to pray in Al Aqsa Mosque: Israeli forces open fire

13 Oct 2006

Israeli forces occupying the West Bank would not let Palestinians pass from Bethlehem to Jerusalem just to the north for Friday prayers at Al Aqsa Mosque. In response, hundreds of young men threw stones at Israeli soldiers occupying the northern Bethlehem checkpoint.

Thousands of Bethlehem residents intended to pray in the Muslim holy site on the third Friday of Ramadan, but as is the case most years, Israeli forces kept people hemmed in behind the checkpoint and now the new Wall.

Every year at Ramadan thousands of Palestinians prayed on the ground near the old checkpoint in northern Bethlehem in an act of nonviolent resistance after being turned away.

Israeli soldiers held each person trying to pass for a lengthy period, pushing some of them away, shouting insults at others, reports a 50 year old Al Doha Village man who must use the same checkpoint to reach Jerusalem. Normally there is no hope except for the elderly, and many times they are turned away as well.

And also as is often the case, the southern Bethlehem village resident told PNN, today Israeli soldiers were deliberately trying to provoke the people for about three hours, ensuring they would not make it in time for prayers.

Today under the rays of the late morning sun, Israeli forces attacked throngs of Palestinians trying to pass as young people threw stones and empty bottles. Israeli soldiers then began shooting, using rubber bullets and gas canister. Several people in the crowd began to faint, including the elderly and small children unable to endure the gas inhalation. Local medical teams arrived and began treating the ill and injured.

Similar events took place at the Al Ram Checkpoint in northern Jerusalem, and at the Qalandiya Checkpoint in southern Ramallah. Israeli forces were not letting Palestinians through for Friday prayers, young people were throwing stones and soldiers were violent, shooting gas and bullets. Thousands of people were not able to pray at noon today at Al Aqsa Mosque, of Islam’s holy sites

Attacks On Masjid al Aqsa Since Occupation!

Since the Israeli occupation of East Jerusalem in 1967 the Zionist fundamentalists have staged over a hundred attacks on Masjid al Aqsa Haram Shareef. Until recently attacks on Masjid al Aqsa were in principle discouraged by the successive Israeli government.

However, the Zionists policy to remove all sites of religious significance belonging to the other faiths from Jerusalem has grown in momentum and the desire to build the Third Temple on the site of Masjid al Aqsa is becoming real. However, according to the Halachah, the Jewish code of law and doctrine, the most critical requirement for rebuilding the Temple, the coming of Messiah, has to be fulfilled. Hence the construction of the Temple until then would actually be in violation of Jewish beliefs. But, the Zionists and their parallel friends in the Christian Zionism have their enthusiasm outstripped by knowledge and from the time of occupation in 1967 Jews began their prayers in the area of Masjid al Aqsa Haram Shareef. Below is a brief list of attacks on Masjid al Aqsa since the illegal Zionist occupation of Jerusalem:

1967 Jewish zealots begin prayers within the Masjid al Aqsa sanctuary, despite the prohibition by the chief Rabbanate of Jews of even setting a foot in it (for fear of violating its sanctity according to Judaic law).

1969 Masjid al Aqsa set on fire. Entire south wing burnt down including the precious Mimbar (pulpit) of Nuradeen commissioned 700 years ago and installed by the great Muslim hero Salahuddin al Ayubi. The man found guilty had sought refuge in a kibbutz and was set free after receiving psychiatric counselling.

1970 Members of the Temple Mount Faithful group, dedicated to demolishing Masjid al Aqsa forcibly entered the Masjid al Aqsa. They were repulsed by the Muslims who suffered casualties from Israeli troop gunfire.

1976 Israeli Courts passed a law permitting Jews to pray in Masjid al Aqsa After much rioting, later to be revoked.

Sept 1979 Jewish extremists blocked one of the entrances to Masjid al Aqsa on Friday, pointing guns to worshippers.

May 1981 The adhan (call to Muslim prayer) was prohibited from the minaret overlooking the Western Wall because of Jewish celebration.

From 1980s Harassment and acts of sabotage escalated. In August of 1981 an Israeli helicopter hovered at low altitude over Masjid al Aqsa preventing worshippers inside from hearing the Khutba.

1981 Tunnels discovered under the Masjid al Aqsa sanctuary. World condemnation followed.

April 1982 A parcel with a fake bomb and threat signed by Jewish extremists was discovered at one of the gates.

April 1982 An ex Israeli army officer opened fire, killing two Muslims and filling the interior and exterior of the Dome of the Rock with bullet marks.

June 1982 An Israeli was arrested and then released for trying to blow up Masjid al Aqsa.

Summer 1982 Jewish fundamentalists attempted to enter Masjid al Aqsa with leaflets inciting Jews to take over the Haram Shareef.

Jan 1983 The Temple Mount Fund was established in Israel, Europe and America to raise funds for rebuilding the Jewish Temple on the site of Masjid al Aqsa.

March 1983 Explosives discovered at an entrance gate and four armed Israelis were discovered attempting to enter the Masjid al Aqsa. Six months later they were acquitted in Israeli courts.

Jan 1984 Jews attempted to climb the walls of Masjid al Aqsa with ladders in the middle of the night armed with ammunition.

1984 Armed Israeli guards start patrolling the Masjid al Aqsa. Their behaviour and presence inimical to the sanctity of Muslim holy site.

15 June 1988 Israeli troops stormed Masjid al Aqsa, firing tear gas into groups of worshippers

July 1988 Further tunnels discovered which sparked further unrest.

6 Oct 1990 Israeli troops opened fire on worshippers murdering 22 and wounding hundreds.

March 1996 Israelis re-opened a tunnel under the Masjid al Aqsa, resulting in confrontations, which resulted in the death of more than 70 Palestinians.

Tunnelling – The excavations under the Masjid al Aqsa are leading to dangerous cracks in buildings adjoining the Western Wall. Archaeologists believe that the tunnels have weakened the building structures within the Haram Shareef. It is believed that a slight tremor, which this area is prone to, will cause the Masjid al Aqsa to collapse. Many are of the opinion this is one of the main reasons for digging tunnels under the Masjid al Aqsa by the Zionists.

March 1997 Birth of a red heifer celebrated by Israelis as a sign from God to destroy the Masjid al Aqsa. This is to be accomplished when the heifer is 3 years old, coinciding with
March 2000.

Oct 1997 Zionist attempted to lay a 4.5 ton rock as a cornerstone for the foundation of their Temple but were repulsed.

May 1999 A recent book published is claiming that the Ark of the Covenant (a box containing the scrolls of Jewish Law from the time of Prophet Musa u) is buried under the Masjid al Aqsa and should be retrieved. Although this theory is contrary to all modern scholarly research.

The Jewish fundamentalist aspiration to build a Jewish Temple has become more open. They openly declare their aims and objectives and are seeking financial and political backing from Europe and USA without any hindrance. Their architectural plans of the Temple are distributed throughout Jerusalem. The scale model together with various other aspects of the proposed Temple are placed in the lobby of Land Hotel, Jerusalem.


Recently around a dozen Jewish fundamentalist groups joined together to form an umbrella organisation called the United Association of Movement for the Holy Temple (UAMHT). Another staunch extremist group is of Gershom Solomon’s, the Temple Mount Faithful. These groups are gripped in a frenzy of hate and ardent desire to blow up the Masjid al Aqsa


The UN Security Council has passed more than 20 resolutions condemning Israels annexation of East Jerusalem and its military occupation of the West Bank.

If the Israeli enthusiasm for moving Palestinians out of their houses is anything to go by, not to mention their history of blowing them up, then all concerned individuals had better keep an eye on Masjid al Aqsa and the Dome of the Rock. Because every day that passes the pressure is increasing. The Jewish extremists historically and theologically challenged viewpoint is working its way into the mainstream and is actively being taken up by parallel groups of Zionist Christian extremists who believe that the construction of the Temple would herald the End Times and the return of Jesus, peace be upon him. It is up to the honourable members of the International community to check their advance.



We at, Friends of Al Aqsa are trying to increase awareness to the dangers faced by Masjid al Aqsa and lobby appropriate departments to insure its safety.

We appeal to all concerned individuals to support us by becoming a friend:

Write or Email for an application form to become a “Friend”

E-mail: info@aqsa.org.uk