Traditionalist ulema lead educational revolution in Kerala

Written by Yoginder Sikand · December 13, 2007 · 452 views

December 13, 2007

Kerala’s Muslims are unique among their co-religionists in India in fashioning a system of education that enables their children to attend both religious as well as regular schools at the same time. Muslims account for around a fourth of Kerala’s population, and the state’s Muslims, known as Mapillas, are among the most literate of the various Muslim communities in the country. Madrasas and schools run by literally hundreds of Muslim religious organizations in the state have made this possible. A recent study by Zubair Hudawi, himself a madrasa graduate from Kerala and presently a doctoral candidate at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, titled ‘Development and Modernisation of Religious Education in Kerala: The Role of the Samastha Kerala Jameyyat ul-Ulama’, discusses this contribution in great detail.

The Samastha Kerala Jameyyat ul-Ulama (SKJU) represents a traditionalist theological position, quite opposed to Islamic modernists on numerous points. Yet, as Hudawi argues, it has not hesitated from championing modern education. Hudawi, who spent several years studying at the Dar ul-Huda Islamic Academy, the SKJU’s leading centre for higher Islamic education, seeks to explain this enigma through an in-depth analysis of the organisation’s evolution and development, arguing against the notion that the traditionalist ulema are necessarily and wholly opposed to ‘modernity’. He argues that the SKJU is an excellent example of a traditionalist Muslim religious organization that, rather than opposing ‘modernity’ outright, actually facilitates it, albeit selectively. Thus, today, he writes, the SKJU runs not just several thousand madrasas but also numerous English- and Malayalam-medium schools, and scores of women’s and technical colleges. Continue reading “Traditionalist ulema lead educational revolution in Kerala”

Islam’s Path East: China

One of Islam’s main entry points into China was the Pearl River port of Quanzhou.

The majority of China’s Muslims are Turkic peoples living in the vast Xinjiang region of northwest China. The rest are mainly Hui – either descendants of Chinese converts to Islam or the offspring of Chinese intermarriages with Muslim immigrants whose appearance is distinctly Chinese. They live in sizeable communities in the former Silk Road oases of western and central China, in the southern province of Yunnan, and in the industrial cities and ports of the east. 

Contacts between Muslims and Chinese began very early. Arab merchants traded in silk even before the advent of Islam, and tradition has it that the new religion was brought to their port-city trading colonies by Muslim missionaries in the seventh century.

In 755, a contingent of 4000 soldiers, mostly Muslim Turks, was sent by the Abbasid caliph Abu Jafar al-Mansur to help the Chinese emperor Su Tsung quell a revolt by one of his military commanders, An LuShan. Following the recapture of the imperial capital, Ch’angan (today’s Xian), these soldiers settled in China, married Chinese wives and founded inland Muslim colonies similar to those established by the traders on the coast. 

Islam made its first real inroads into what is now western China in the middle of the 10th century, with the conversion of Sultan Sutuq Bughrakhan of Kashgar and his subsequent conquest of the Silk Road oases of Yarkand and Khotan in southwest Xinjiang. 

During the Song Dynasty (960 – 1279), China experienced spectacular economic growth. This stimulated expansion of the Muslim mercantile communities – particularly in Ch’ang – an, the eastern terminus of the Silk Roads, and in the port cities of Quanzhou and Guangzhou, where Muslims largely governed the internal affairs of their own neighborhoods, building mosques and appointing qadis to adjudicate according to Islamic law.

But although some Chinese merchants involved in international trade did become Muslims, other converts were few, and Islam in China was confined largely to Muslim immigrants and their descendants. Until, that is, the Mongol invasion overthrew the Song Dynasty and ushered in what Chinese Muslims regard as the “golden age” of Islam in China. Continue reading “Islam’s Path East: China”

Correct Hijaab

 
 
 
  Question:

I wanted to know about a matter consurning the RIGHT hijaab
What is the proper hijaab? I mean so many differnt hijaabs are to choose from, And I have this friend from Denmark and she converted to Islam for a while now, and she’s pleased ( ALhamduli_Allah) and she want to wear the right Hijaab.
Could you please tell us wear it says that the hijaab SHOULD be LONG (JILBAAB) over the cheas! she really needs this! thank you

Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

The conditions of hijaab:

Firstly:

(It should cover all the body apart from whatever has been exempted).

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allaah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

This aayah clearly states that it is obligatory to cover all of a woman’s beauty and adornments and not to display any part of that before non-mahram men (“strangers”) except for whatever appears unintentionally, in which case there will be no sin on them if they hasten to cover it up.

Al-Haafiz ibn Katheer said in his Tafseer:

This means that they should not display any part of their adornment to non-mahrams, apart from that which it is impossible to conceal. Ibn Mas’ood said: such as the cloak and robe, i.e., what the women of the Arabs used to wear, an outer garment which covered whatever the woman was wearing, except for whatever appeared from beneath the outer garment. There is no sin on a woman with regard to this because it is impossible to conceal it. Continue reading “Correct Hijaab”

Some of the Benefits of the Holy Quran

Know that the greatest cure, gems, wonderful properties as well as strange miracles can be found in the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran can not be even likened to high mountains, for it is more sublime nor likened to oceans, for it is more profound.
Should you look at the sermons and admonitions therein, you will see that the eloquent orators have benefited from the Holy Quran. Should you look at its injunctions on what is lawful and unlawful, you will see that the truthful Mufti and expert jurisprudents have benefited from the ocean of this Book. Should you look at its eloquence, you will see the eloquent ones have benefited from the source of this Book. Men of letters take pride in interpreting the Holy Quran and getting to know its fundamentals. After reading:
* *
“What announcement would they then believe in after this?” (Verse 38, Anam)
No one can possibly say a better word. If you are looking for cure, you can find it therein and it is the same Book which shows you how to become rich. The Holy Quran is also an instrument for your Dua to be answered. This Dua is presented in three sections:

1- Healing
a- Imam Sadeq (AS) has reported on the authority of his fathers and the Holy Prophet (SAW):
* *
764. “A man was complaining of pain in his breast to the Holy Prophet (SAW). The Holy Prophet (SAW) said: Seek healing from the Holy Quran, for God says:
“A healing for what is in the breasts.” (Verse 75, Yunus)
b- Sheikh Sadooq has reported on the authority of the Holy Prophet (SAW):
* *
765. “The healing of my ummah lies in three things: A verse of the Book of Allah, eating honey, a cupper’s lancet.”
c- Imam Baqer (AS) has said:
* *
766. “Whoever can not be cured by the Quranic Chapter, the opening (Fateha) he can not be cured by anything else.”
d- It has been reported on the authority of Imam Kazem (AS):
* *
767. “Whoever recites the Throne Verse (Ayatolkorsi) before going to bed, he will NOT be afflicted with paralysis and whoever recites it after each prayer will not be hurt by any animals having sting.”
e- Asbaq Ibne Nabateh in a long Hadith says: A man came to Amiralmoamenin saying: There is yellow water in my abdomen. Is it curable? The Imam said:
* *
768. “Yes, write the Throne Verse on your abdomen without paying any Dirham or Dinar. Also drink a mixture of water and the inscription of the Throne Verse, you will be cured with the permission of God.” Continue reading “Some of the Benefits of the Holy Quran”

Does the Quran or Muhammad promote violence?

 
 

 

 

     

 

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Audio Does the Quran or Muhammad promote violence?

Does the Quran or Muhammad promote violence?

By: Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq
IslamiCity* –

 

Toward Understanding Muhammad:
Some issues in peace and violence

 

In the aftermath of September 11 when President Bush visited the Islamic Center of Washington DC, both to reassure the Muslims in America and to create public awareness against prejudice, he remarked: “The face of terror is not the true faith of Islam. That’s not what Islam is all about. Islam is peace.” Of course, Bush is, first and foremost, a politician and therefore his remarks should be taken with a grain of salt – actually, a lot of salt.

 

The American President was quickly rebuffed even by a number of his compatriots, who vehemently disagreed with the President’s diplomatic stance. “… a large number of foreign policy hawks — some of them with advisory roles in the Bush administration — have joined religious conservatives in taking issue with Bush’s characterizations. … they say the claim is dishonest and destined to fail.” [Conservatives Dispute Bush Portrayal of Islam as Peaceful] A pro-Israel, conservative or neocon, Daniel Pipes, sermonized that since calls for “Death to America” in 1979 in Iran, “… some 600 Americans have been murdered by militant Muslims. And still the U.S. government fails to ‘proclaim militant Islam our strategic enemy’ but instead goes along with blandishments about ‘good Muslims’ and ‘true Islam’ being a religion of peace.” [Militant Islam Is Still Enemy No.1]

 

In contrast to the above two categories of non-Muslim stance, there are two parallel camps within Muslims. One camp on the fringe has no qualms in taking a public position that Islam enjoins fighting and subduing the non-Muslims, and this is a sublime religious duty. They urge the Muslims to take up a combative struggle – armed if necessary – to resist the evil of the “infidels” (kuffar) and to facilitate Islam’s victory over others. They cite the example of the Prophet as to how under his leadership the world of the unbelievers was subdued.

 

Repudiating this group of extremist Muslims, there is the broader Muslim community that finds an echo of their own position in what President Bush said and they would like the world to know that Islam means peace and Islam is peaceful. Period. This group is very much troubled by the hate-mongering and violent posturing of the fringe extremists among Muslims. Thus, they would like to underscore and highlight the essential dimension of Islam, which in their view is peace.

 

So, is Islam essentially intolerant and violent or is it essentially tolerant or peaceful? The fact of the matter is that in presenting Islam as essentially peaceful or violent, there is a false and an unacceptable reductionism, and trying to cast Islam in such reductionist framework inevitably leads to either misunderstanding or misrepresentation.

 

A few premises

 

At the center of this whole debate are three aspects: the Qur’an, the life of the Prophet, and the historical experience of Muslims. But first let me identify a few pertinent premises.

 

(1) Muslims hold the Qur’an as the ultimate source of divine guidance. Even the Prophet could not have contradicted the Qur’an, let alone anyone else. (2) The Qur’anic verses should not be taken in isolation from other verses or from the Prophetic experience. (3) The Qur’anic verses, commands or otherwise, have different levels of priority; some are general in scope and are to be treated or upheld as norms, while other verses might be contextual, delimited or transitional. (4) Life is an integrated whole, and Islam is a guidance for the whole life in a comprehensive or holistic manner, where a sense or goal of balance is of supreme importance. And (5) life needs to be treated as life, which from the Islamic viewpoint should be understood as based on Fitrah, the innate human nature.

 

Some historical observations Continue reading “Does the Quran or Muhammad promote violence?”

WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF Tazkiyyah?

WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF Tazkiyyah?

Tazkiyah means The purification of one’s heart and the soul.

“Allah conferred indeed a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger (i.e., Muhammad-sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) from among themselves reciting unto them His Verses (i.e., the Qur’an ) and purifying them (from sins by their following him) and instructing them in the Book (i.e., the Qur’an ) and Wisdom (i.e., the Sunnah), while before that they had been in manifest error.” – The Qur’an 3:164.

The Qur’an and Sunnah are the only sources for tazkiyah. The Prophet Muhammad- sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam-is the purest of mankind in soul and his character was that of Qur’an. There is none who approaches him in this. For this reason he is the model for tazkiyah. Allah says: “Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example to follow…” – The Qur’an 33:21.

The Prophet’s Companions and the rest of Salaf-us-Saliheen are also, as a whole, a fine model to follow in tazkiyah. There is no way of drawing closer to Allah except by adhering to what the Prophet Muhammad-sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam-came with.

The Prophet-sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam-has said: “If anyone introduces into this affair of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected.” – Al-Bukhari and Muslim. Continue reading “WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF Tazkiyyah?”

IN DEFIANCE OF THE QUR’AN AND The SUNNAH

IN DEFIANCE OF THE QUR’AN AND SUNNAH

The following are excerpts and quotations from well-known Sufi works presented along with corresponding beliefs from outside the fold of Islam. Relevant texts from the Qur’ân and the Sunnah are also quoted for the sake of comparison, so that Muslims may judge for themselves whether Sufi beliefs are Islamic or not. Each quotation is footnoted with the reference from which it is taken.

The Sufis claim: “The ways unto God are as numerous as the number of creatures in the world”. Ibn Mas’ood, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s) made a straight line on the ground with his hand, then he said, ‘This is the straight way of Allah.’ Then he made (short) line on each side of the straight line; then he said, ‘These (short) lines, each one has a Shaytaan inviting people to it.’ Then he recited the verse: meaning, ‘And this is My path straight. So follow it, and do not follow (other) ways, lest they lead you away from My path.’ Continue reading “IN DEFIANCE OF THE QUR’AN AND The SUNNAH”

Tasawwuf & Tazkiyya – Sufism & Reformation

 

A recent comment on my blog propelled me to writing a short description on Tasawwuf and Tazkiya; its meaning, methods, purpose and reality in Islam.

Tasawwuf and Tazkiya are regarded, by some, as a completely separate section, department and form of worship in Islam. It is regarded as a path that one ‘specialises’ in. However, in reality every part, section and action in Islam contains the essence of Tasawwuf and requires its presence.

Tasawwuf and Tazkiya are usually translated in the English language as Sufism or Reformation of the Self and its master is regarded as a Sheikh or a Sufi, whilst the followers of the masters are regarded as Mureeds. Continue reading “Tasawwuf & Tazkiyya – Sufism & Reformation”

Ahead of Iraq Deployment, 37 Korean Troops Convert to Islam

Ahead of Iraq Deployment, 37 Korean Troops Convert to Islam
“I became a Muslim because I felt Islam was more humanistic and peaceful than other religions. And if you can religiously connect with the locals, I think it could be a big help in carrying out our peace reconstruction mission.” So said on Friday those Korean soldiers who converted to Islam ahead of their late July deployment to the Kurdish city of Irbil in northern Iraq. At noon Friday, 37 members of the Iraq-bound “Zaitun Unit,” including Lieutenant Son Hyeon-ju of the Special Forces 11th Brigade, made their way to a mosque in Hannam-dong, Seoul and held a conversion ceremony.

Captain Son Jin-gu from Zaitoon Unit recites an oath at ceremony to mark his conversion to Islam at a mosque in Hannam-dong, Seoul on Friday. /Yonhap


The soldiers, who cleansed their entire bodies in accordance with Islamic tradition, made their conversion during the Friday group prayers at the mosque, with the assistance of the “imam,” or prayer leader.

With the exception of the imam, all the Muslims and the Korean soldiers stood in a straight line to symbolize how all are equal before God and took a profession on faith.

They had memorized the Arabic confession, ” Ashadu an La ilaha il Allah, Muhammad-ur-Rasool-Allah,” which means, “I testify that there is no god but God (Arabic: Allah), and Muhammad is the Messenger of God.”

Soldiers from Zaitoon Unit pray after conversion ceremony at a mosque in Hannam-dong, Seoul on Friday./Yonhap


Moreover, as the faithful face the “Kaaba,” the Islamic holy place in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, all Muslims confirm that they are brothers.

For those Korean soldiers who entered the Islamic faith, recent chances provided by the Zaitun Unit to come into contact with Islam proved decisive.

Taking into consideration the fact that most of the inhabitants of Irbil are Muslims, the unit sent its unreligious members to the Hannam-dong mosque so that they could come to understand Islam. Some of those who participated in the program were entranced by Islam and decided to convert.

A unit official said the soldiers were inspired by how important religious homogeneity was considered in the Muslim World; if you share religion, you are treated not as a foreigner, but as a local, and Muslims do not attack Muslim women even in war.

Zaitun Unit Corporal Paek Seong-uk (22) of the Army’s 11th Division said, “I majored in Arabic in college and upon coming across the Quran, I had much interest in Islam, and I made up my mind to become a Muslim during this religious experience period [provided by the Zaitun Unit].”

He expressed his aspirations. “If we are sent to Iraq, I want to participate in religious ceremonies with the locals so that they can feel brotherly love and convince them that the Korean troops are not an army of occupation but a force deployed to provide humanitarian support.”

(englishnews@chosun.com )

AFTER HAJJ

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
AFTER HAJJ
By Shaykh Muhammad Saleem Dhorat

Once again more than two million believers were honoured to become the ‘Guests of Allah’ and through Divine Guidance have completed the rituals of Hajj with great love and enthusiasm. How fortunate are these souls who are blessed with the following words from Rasoolullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam:

Whoever performs Hajj for the Pleasure of Allah and therein utters no word of evil, nor commits any evil deed, shall return from it (free from sin) as the day on which his mother gave birth to him.
Bukhaari, Muslim

Verily there shall be no reward for a Mabroor Hajj except Jannah.
Bukhaari, Muslim

It is hoped that all the pilgrims were sincere in their intentions and had travelled thousands of miles only to secure the Pleasure of Allah by fulfilling the obligation laid down upon them. May Allah the Almighty grant all the pilgrims acceptance and grant them opportunity again and again to visit the Sacred Land. Aameen.
Continue reading “AFTER HAJJ”

“Whoever prays Fajr will be under the protection of Allaah”

Meaning of the hadeeth: “Whoever prays Fajr will be under the protection of Allaah”

Question:
What is the meaning of the hadeeth of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): “Whoever prays Fajr in congregation will be under the protection of Allaah”? How can I be under the protection of Allaah?
If a man prays at home in congregation with his wife, is it the same as the prayer in congregation that is mentioned in the hadeeth?.

Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.

Muslim (657) narrated that Jundub ibn ‘Abd-Allaah said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever prays Fajr is under the protection of Allaah, so do not fall short with regard to the rights of Allaah, for anyone who does that, Allaah will seize him and will throw him on his face into the Fire of Hell.”

Al-Teebi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The reason why Fajr prayer is singled out for mention here is because of the hardship that it entails, and performing it is a sign of a man’s sincerity and faith, and whoever is a sincere believer is under the protection of Allaah. Sharh Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh by al-Teebi (2/184).

There are two scholarly views on the meaning of the hadeeth:

1 – The hadeeth indicates that it is forbidden to harm any Muslim who prays Fajr, for the one who prays Fajr is under the care and protection of Allaah, and it is not permissible for anyone to harm the one whom Allaah has protected. If anyone harms him, he has transgressed and violated the protection of Allaah, so he deserves the punishment of Allaah for having transgressed His protection and for harming the one who is under His protection. See Fayd al-Qadeer by al-Manaawi (6/164).

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Sharh Riyaadh al-Saaliheen (1/591):

This indicates that it is obligatory to respect the Muslims who affirm their Islam by praying Fajr, because no one offers Fajr prayer but a believer. And it is not permissible for anyone to transgress against them. End quote.

This is also indicated by the report narrated by al-Tabaraani in al-Mu’jam al-Awsat (4/5) with his isnaad. Al-Albaani said in Saheeh al-Targheeb (1/110): it is saheeh because of corroborating reports.

It was narrated that al-A’mash said: Saalim ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar was sitting with al-Hajjaaj and al-Hajjaaj said to him: Get up and strike this person’s neck. Saalim picked up the sword and took hold of the man, and headed towards the gate of the palace. Then his father looked at him when he was taking this man out and said: Is he really going to do it? He repeated it two or three times, and when he took him out, Saalim said to him: Did you pray Fajr? He said: Yes. He said: Then take whichever path you want. Then he came and threw down the sword and al-Hajjaaj said to him: Did you strike his neck? He said: No. He said: Why not? He said: I heard my father say: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever prays Fajr is under the protection of Allaah until evening comes.”

2 – What is meant by the hadeeth is a warning against abandoning or neglecting Fajr prayer, because abandoning it is a transgression of the covenant between a person and his Lord. This covenant is prayer and regular performance of prayer.

Al-Baydaawi said: It may be that what is meant by protection is that prayer brings security (from the punishment of Allaah), so what is meant is: Do not abandon Fajr prayer, and do not be heedless about it, lest you break the covenant that exists between you and your Lord, and Allaah seizes you, for whomever He seizes He will throw on his face into the Fire. That is because Fajr prayer is somewhat difficult and burdensome. So performing it is a sign of the believer’s sincerity, and the one who is sincere is under the protection of Allaah. End quote from Fayd al-Qadeer (6/164).

Some scholars are of the view that the virtue of entering the protection of Allaah that is mentioned in this hadeeth applies only to the one who prays Fajr in congregation. Hence al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) gave it the title, in his editing of Saheeh Muslim, of “Chapter on the virtue of praying ‘Isha’ and Fajr in congregation.” He was preceded in that by al-Mundhiri (may Allaah have mercy on him), who quoted the hadeeth in his book al-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb under the heading “Encouragement to pray Fajr and ‘Isha’, in particular, in congregation, and a warning against staying away from them.”

This apparently is what Imam Muslim did, as he narrated nearly twenty ahaadeeth before this hadeeth, and umpteen ahaadeeth after it, all of them speaking about prayer in congregation and related matters.

Hence al-Haafiz ‘Abd al-Haqq al-Ishbeeli narrated it in his compilation of al-Saheehayn, in a chapter entitled “Prayer in congregation” (923).

Al-Mubaarakfoori quoted the same hadeeth in Sharh al-Tirmidhi, where he said: “The one who prays Fajr” in congregation. End quote.

Ibn ‘Allaan said in Daleel al-Faaliheen (3/550): i.e., prayer in congregation, as mentioned in the other report.

This is supported further by the hadeeth of Abu Bakrah (may Allaah be pleased with him): “Whoever prays Fajr in congregation will be under the protection of Allaah …” al-Haythami (may Allaah have mercy on him) said (2/92): Narrated by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer, and its men are the men of saheeh. Al-Mundhiri said in al-Targheeb: the men of its isnaad are the men of saheeh. Al-Albaani said: It is saheeh because of corroborating evidence. See: Saheeh al-Targheeb, no. 461.

Note: This additional material was quoted by al-Manaawi also, and he attributed it to Muslim, but this is a mistake on his part. The additional word “in congregation” is not found in Muslim, or in any of the six books.

And it was said that the virtue is attained by everyone who prays Fajr on time, even if he does not pray with the congregation, because no such limitation is mentioned in the report of Muslim or any other author of the six books.

This appears to be the meaning understood by Ibn Maajah (may Allaah be pleased with him) as he included this hadeeth in his Sunan in a chapter entitled “The Muslims are under the protection of Allaah,” in Kitaab al-Fitan.

This was also suggested by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (6/36): “Chapter affirming the protection of Allaah for the one who prays Fajr.” This applies to all those who pray.

3 – The prescribed prayer in congregation that is enjoined and brings the reward is prayer in congregation in the mosque, and not any other congregation. This has been explained in detail in questions no. 8918, 49947 and 72398.

There are several reports that speak of the virtue of offering Fajr prayer in congregation:

In Tafseer al-Tabari (3/270), in the commentary on the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “and those who pray and beg Allaah’s Pardon in the last hours of the night” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:17], it is narrated that Zayd ibn Aslam said: They are the ones who attend Fajr in congregation.

In their commentary on the verse “Their sides forsake their beds, to invoke their Lord in fear and hope” [al-Sajdah 32:16], Abu’l-Darda’ and al-Dahhaak said: ‘Isha’ and Fajr prayer in congregation.

See: Zaad al-Maseer (6/339)

In Saheeh Muslim (656) it is narrated from ‘Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever prays ‘Isha’ in congregation, it is as if he spent half the night in prayer, and whoever prays Fajr in congregation, it is as if he spent the whole night in prayer.”

Al-Bukhaari (615) and Muslim (437) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If they knew what there is (of reward) in ‘Isha’ and Fajr prayer, they would come to them even if they had to crawl.”

‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: To attend Fajr prayer in congregation is dearer to me than spending the night in prayer. Al-Istidhkaar (2/147).

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And Allaah knows best.

ERRORS IN HAJJ AND KAFFAARAH

ERRORS IN HAJJ AND KAFFAARAH 

Errors which happen during Hajj are called Jinaayaat. There are two types of jinaayaat:

(1) Omission of the Waajib acts of Hajj.
(2) Commission of the Hajj prohibitions.

    The prohibitions of Hajj are of two kinds:

(1) The prohibitions of Ihraam.
(2) The prohibitions of the Haram Shareef (the Holy Place).

Nine errors pertain to Ihraam and two errors to Haram.  Thus, there are altogether eleven errors regarding the prohibitions of Hajj. These are as follows:
(1) To apply perfume.
(2) For men to wear sewn clothes.
(3) To cover the head and f ace.
(4) To remove lice from one’s body.
(5) To kill lice.
(6) To remove hair from the body.
(7) To cut nails.
(8) To indulge in sexual relationship.
(9) To hunt or molest game (wild animals on land).
(10) To hunt in the Holy Precincts.
(11) To cut the grass or trees of the Haram.

    • PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE ERRORS

There are several principles governing the errors committed. These will now be explained to facilitate better understanding of the errors.

FIRST PRINCIPLE: There are four ways in which the prohibitions of Hajj are committed:

(1) The prohibition is committed fully but because of a valid reason.

(2) The prohibition is committed partially but because of a valid reason.

(3) The prohibition is committed fully but without valid reason.

(4) The prohibition is committed partially but without valid reason.
The Hukm (effect and rule) of each of these four ways of commission is
different. The ruling applicable to each one is as follows:
(a) If the prohibition was committed fully, but because of a valid reason, Dum or Fasting or Sadqah becomes Waajib.

(b) If the prohibition was committed partially, but because of a valid reason, either Fasting or Sadqah is Waajib.

(c) If the prohibition was committed fully, but without valid reason, only Dum is Waajib. In this case there is no choice.

(d) If the prohibition was committed partially, but without valid reason, only Sadqah is Waajib. Again, here is no choice.
SECOND PRINCIPLE: Dum is one goat or one sheep or a seventh share of a cow or camel.

THIRD PRINCIPLE: A whole cow or a whole camel is incumbent on only two occasions, as follows:

(1) Making Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, i.e. the greater impurity or janaabat.

(2) To indulge in sexual intercourse after Wuqoof-e-Arafaat, but before shaving the head.

FOURTH PRINCIPLE: All conditions and requirements applicable to Qurbaani animals apply to the Dum animals as well.

FIFTH PRINCIPLE: Sadqah in this context is half a Saa’ (approximately 2,5 kg.) of wheat or the amount which is usually paid as Fitrah.
SIXTH PRINCIPLE: The Qaarin who commits jinaayaat in Ihraam before making Umrah is liable for two penalties since he is in two states of Ihraam. The Mufrid is liable for one penalty since he is in the state of one Ihraam. However, if the Qaarin entered the Meeqaat limits without Ihraam, only one Dum will be Waajib on him.

SEVENTH PRINCIPLE: Regarding the jinaayaat of the Haram and in the penalty pertaining to game on land, there is a choice of three ways of discharging the penalty. These are:
(1) The wild animal is to be valued and if a sacrificial animal (Dum) is available for this value or price, an animal will be purchased and slaughtered.

(2) This amount may be given in charity.

(3) One may fast instead.
Any one of these three penalties will suffice. If the option of fasting is chosen, one should consult an Alim for ascertaining the method of calculating the number of fasts to be kept. This number differs.

EIGHTH PRINCIPLE: Kaffaarah (penalty or compensation) is obligatory
even if a prohibition of Ihraam is committed on account of a valid reason.
NINTH PRINCIPLE: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted without valid reason, penalty is incumbent.

TENTH PRINCIPLE: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted on account of valid reason, penalty is not obligatory.
ELEVENTH PRINCIPLE: penalty is not incumbent on a minor nor on an insane person. However, if one became insane after having entered the state of Ihraam and later regained sanity, then penalty is obligatory for any omission of Waajib acts which had occurred.

TWELFTH PRINCIPLE: If one is unable to discharge the penalty immediately, payment at a later date will be valid.
Deliberate commission of jinaayaat is a grave and major sin. Hajj is not accepted if jinaayaat are committed deliberately.
Discharging the penalty of Jinaayaat does not set one free from the sin. After payment of the penalty it is essential to make taubah (repent) and seek forgiveness from Allah Ta’ala.

      •  THE RULES OF JINAAYAT

(1) If one enters the precincts of the Meeqaat without Ihraam, Dum is Waajib. If the Ihraam is adopted after entering the Meeqaat, one Dum is Waajib. However, if one returns to the Meeqaat and dons Ihraam there, then the Dum penalty falls away.

(2) One who enters the Meeqaat without Ihraam, may return to the Meeqaat as long as one has not entered Makkah Mukarramah and commenced the acts of Hajj. Until such time that one Shaut of Tawaaf has not been rendered, one may return to the Meeqaat and recite the Talbiyah there. In this case the Dum penalty falls away.

(3) The penalty of a camel or Sadqah does not apply for the omission of any Waajib act of Umrah. In this case only a sheep or goat is obligatory. However, since the Ihraam of Umrah and the Ihraam of Hajj are the same, commission of the prohibitions of Ihraam will make Sadqah incumbent.

(4) If the Tawaaf of Umrah, the whole of it or part of it, even if it is just one Shaut, was performed in the state of either Hadth- e-Akbar (janaabat) or Hadth-e-Asghar (without wudhu), then Dum is Waajib.

(5) If Tawaaf-e-Qudoom, Nafl Tawaaf or Tawaaf-e-Wida’ were performed without wudhu, the Sadqah penalty is half Saa’ wheat (the amount of Sadaqatul Fitr) for every Shaut of the Tawaaf rendered without wudhu. If the amount or value of the Sadqah for all the Shauts is equal to the price of a Dum, then slightly less than the price of a Dum should be given as Sadqah. This same rule applies to less than half of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat made without wudhu.

(6) If the whole or the greater part of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat is made in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar (janaabat), the penalty is a camel or a cow.

(7) If less than half of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat or the whole of Tawaaf-e-Qudoom or Tawaaf-e-Wida’ or Tawaaf-e- Nafl is made in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, the penalty of one goat is Waajib.

(8) If Tawaaf Ziyaarat was made in the state of janaabat and Tawaaf Wida’ was made in the state of tahaarat (purity) during the days of Nahr (10th, 11th, 12th), then this Tawaaf Wida will be considered to be Tawaaf Ziyaarat. Tawaaf Wida’ will have to be repeated. If it is not repeated, Dum is Waajib.

First ten days of Zul Hijjah

 

When Allah Ta’ala takes an oath upon some aspect, it is to illustrate the great significance of that aspect in the sight of Allah Ta’ala. Among the various things which Allah Ta’ala has taken an oath upon in the Qur’an is “ten nights” (Surah Al-Fajr). Many Mufassireen (commentators) are of the view that this refers to the first ten nights of Zul-Hijjah.

The Ahaadith also mention the virtue of the first ten days of Zul Hijjah. It is reported in one hadith that no action is more beloved to Allah Ta’ala than the action performed in these ten days, whether it be nafil salaah, zikr, charity, etc. (Sahih Bukhari).

REWARD EQUAL TO ONE YEAR

In another Hadith it is reported that one fast in these ten days is equivalent to the reward of fasting for one year (the tenth of Zul-Hijjah is excluded since it is not permissible to fast on the day of Eidul-Adha). Likewise, performing Ibaadah in any of these nights earns the reward of Ibaadah in Lailatul Qadr (Tirmizi).

Furthermore, among these ten days is the day of Arafah (9th Zul-Hijjah). Regarding this day Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is reported to have said: “I have hope in Allah Ta’ala that the fast of the day of Arafah will be an atonement for the (minor) sins of the past and forthcoming year” (Tirmizi). In a narration of Tabraani it is reported that one should in these ten days recite the following excessively: Tasbeeh (Subhanallah), Tahleel (La ilaha illallah), Tahmeed (Al-Hamdulillah) and Takbeer (Allahu Akbar).

DEPRIVATION

Thus the first ten days and nights of Zul-Hijjah are extremely virtuous. One should therefore engage oneself in even more Ibaadah during this time. One should fast on as many of these days as possible. To ignore these virtues and be indifferent to the significance of these days and nights is indeed a great deprivation. It is also a sign of ingratitude to Allah Ta’ala for the great opportunity He has given us to earn tremendously multiplied rewards for little acts of devotion. Hence let us not ignore the gift of Allah Ta’ala. Instead let us take the maximum advantage of this gift.

Related Article: http://www.jamiat.org.za/isinfo/Significance_first_ten_days_Zil_Hijjah.html

First ten days of Zul Hijjah

10nightszulhijjahbig.jpg

When Allah Ta’ala takes an oath upon some aspect, it is to illustrate the great significance of that aspect in the sight of Allah Ta’ala. Among the various things which Allah Ta’ala has taken an oath upon in the Qur’an is “ten nights” (Surah Al-Fajr). Many Mufassireen (commentators) are of the view that this refers to the first ten nights of Zul-Hijjah.

The Ahaadith also mention the virtue of the first ten days of Zul Hijjah. It is reported in one hadith that no action is more beloved to Allah Ta’ala than the action performed in these ten days, whether it be nafil salaah, zikr, charity, etc. (Sahih Bukhari).

REWARD EQUAL TO ONE YEAR

In another Hadith it is reported that one fast in these ten days is equivalent to the reward of fasting for one year (the tenth of Zul-Hijjah is excluded since it is not permissible to fast on the day of Eidul-Adha). Likewise, performing Ibaadah in any of these nights earns the reward of Ibaadah in Lailatul Qadr (Tirmizi).

Furthermore, among these ten days is the day of Arafah (9th Zul-Hijjah). Regarding this day Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is reported to have said: “I have hope in Allah Ta’ala that the fast of the day of Arafah will be an atonement for the (minor) sins of the past and forthcoming year” (Tirmizi). In a narration of Tabraani it is reported that one should in these ten days recite the following excessively: Tasbeeh (Subhanallah), Tahleel (La ilaha illallah), Tahmeed (Al-Hamdulillah) and Takbeer (Allahu Akbar).

DEPRIVATION

Thus the first ten days and nights of Zul-Hijjah are extremely virtuous. One should therefore engage oneself in even more Ibaadah during this time. One should fast on as many of these days as possible. To ignore these virtues and be indifferent to the significance of these days and nights is indeed a great deprivation. It is also a sign of ingratitude to Allah Ta’ala for the great opportunity He has given us to earn tremendously multiplied rewards for little acts of devotion. Hence let us not ignore the gift of Allah Ta’ala. Instead let us take the maximum advantage of this gift.

Related Article: http://www.jamiat.org.za/isinfo/Significance_first_ten_days_Zil_Hijjah.html

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