What if Rajiv Gandhi hadn’t unlocked the Babri Masjid in 1986?

This article first appeared in the online version of the newsmagazine
‘Outlook India’ (issue dt. 23 August 2004) at the URL
http://outlookindia.com/full.asp?fodname=20040823&fname=UCol+Koenraad&sid=1

In 1985, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi gave in to Muslim pressure in the Shah Bano affair. Overruling a secular court�s decision that the repudiated wife Shah Bano was entitled to alimony from her ex-husband, he enacted a law abolishing the alimony provision in conformity with the Shari�a. Since India, unlike secular states, already had religion-based Civil Codes, this concession merely brought the minor matter of alimony under the purview of the prevailing arrangement. More importantly, it prevented riots.

Only months later, Gandhi restored the balance by giving the Hindus something as well: he ordered the locks on the Ram Janmabhoomi Babri Masjid in Ayodhya removed. Until then, a priest had been permitted to perform puja once a year for the idols installed there in 1949. Now, all Hindus were given access to what they consider as the birthplace of Rama, the prince posthumously deified as an incarnation of Vishnu.

Fundamentally, this decision didn�t alter the Ayodhya equation. Architecturally, the building was and remained a mosque, while functionally, it had been and continued to be a Hindu temple. That is why in my opinion, not taking this decision wouldn�t have changed the Ayodhya developments except in their timing. The different players, their strategies and goals, and their resolve to pursue these, all remained the same. The Babri Masjid Action Committee and the Vishva Hindu Parishad would have gone about their �business� just the same.

However, the VHP would have been forced to continue pushing the rather petty demand for removing the locks, rather than move on to the more ambitious and more mobilizing next step of planning the construction of a new temple. Most probably, the BJP would likewise have reaped smaller dividends from such a campaign. In 1989, it might not have jumped as high as 86 seats. Conversely, Congress might not have lost the North-Indian Muslim vote to the Janata Dal. In 1989, it could have remained just strong enough to cobble together a coalition rather than leave the initiative to the unwholesome and unstable Janata-BJP-Communist combine. So, at the level of party politics, Rajiv Gandhi�s decision may have made a big difference. Continue reading “What if Rajiv Gandhi hadn’t unlocked the Babri Masjid in 1986?”

THE LAST SERMON

In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

           

The Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) Last Sermon

This sermon was delivered on the Ninth Day of Dhul Hijjah 10 A.H. in the ‘Uranah valley of Mount Arafat’ (in Mecca).

 

After praising, and thanking Allah he said:

 

“O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and TAKE THESE WORDS TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BE PRESENT HERE TODAY.

 

O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds. ALLAH has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn ‘Abd’al Muttalib (Prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived…

 

Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

 

O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.

 

O People, listen to me in earnest, worship ALLAH, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.

 

All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.

 

Remember, one day you will appear before ALLAH and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

 

O People, NO PROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEW FAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the QURAN and my example, the SUNNAH and if you follow these you will never go astray.

 

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O ALLAH, that I have conveyed your message to your people”.

 

IslamiCity

AFTER HAJJ

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
AFTER HAJJ
By Shaykh Muhammad Saleem Dhorat

Once again more than two million believers were honoured to become the ‘Guests of Allah’ and through Divine Guidance have completed the rituals of Hajj with great love and enthusiasm. How fortunate are these souls who are blessed with the following words from Rasoolullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam:

Whoever performs Hajj for the Pleasure of Allah and therein utters no word of evil, nor commits any evil deed, shall return from it (free from sin) as the day on which his mother gave birth to him.
Bukhaari, Muslim

Verily there shall be no reward for a Mabroor Hajj except Jannah.
Bukhaari, Muslim

It is hoped that all the pilgrims were sincere in their intentions and had travelled thousands of miles only to secure the Pleasure of Allah by fulfilling the obligation laid down upon them. May Allah the Almighty grant all the pilgrims acceptance and grant them opportunity again and again to visit the Sacred Land. Aameen.
Continue reading “AFTER HAJJ”

ERRORS IN HAJJ AND KAFFAARAH

ERRORS IN HAJJ AND KAFFAARAH 

Errors which happen during Hajj are called Jinaayaat. There are two types of jinaayaat:

(1) Omission of the Waajib acts of Hajj.
(2) Commission of the Hajj prohibitions.

    The prohibitions of Hajj are of two kinds:

(1) The prohibitions of Ihraam.
(2) The prohibitions of the Haram Shareef (the Holy Place).

Nine errors pertain to Ihraam and two errors to Haram.  Thus, there are altogether eleven errors regarding the prohibitions of Hajj. These are as follows:
(1) To apply perfume.
(2) For men to wear sewn clothes.
(3) To cover the head and f ace.
(4) To remove lice from one’s body.
(5) To kill lice.
(6) To remove hair from the body.
(7) To cut nails.
(8) To indulge in sexual relationship.
(9) To hunt or molest game (wild animals on land).
(10) To hunt in the Holy Precincts.
(11) To cut the grass or trees of the Haram.

    • PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE ERRORS

There are several principles governing the errors committed. These will now be explained to facilitate better understanding of the errors.

FIRST PRINCIPLE: There are four ways in which the prohibitions of Hajj are committed:

(1) The prohibition is committed fully but because of a valid reason.

(2) The prohibition is committed partially but because of a valid reason.

(3) The prohibition is committed fully but without valid reason.

(4) The prohibition is committed partially but without valid reason.
The Hukm (effect and rule) of each of these four ways of commission is
different. The ruling applicable to each one is as follows:
(a) If the prohibition was committed fully, but because of a valid reason, Dum or Fasting or Sadqah becomes Waajib.

(b) If the prohibition was committed partially, but because of a valid reason, either Fasting or Sadqah is Waajib.

(c) If the prohibition was committed fully, but without valid reason, only Dum is Waajib. In this case there is no choice.

(d) If the prohibition was committed partially, but without valid reason, only Sadqah is Waajib. Again, here is no choice.
SECOND PRINCIPLE: Dum is one goat or one sheep or a seventh share of a cow or camel.

THIRD PRINCIPLE: A whole cow or a whole camel is incumbent on only two occasions, as follows:

(1) Making Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, i.e. the greater impurity or janaabat.

(2) To indulge in sexual intercourse after Wuqoof-e-Arafaat, but before shaving the head.

FOURTH PRINCIPLE: All conditions and requirements applicable to Qurbaani animals apply to the Dum animals as well.

FIFTH PRINCIPLE: Sadqah in this context is half a Saa’ (approximately 2,5 kg.) of wheat or the amount which is usually paid as Fitrah.
SIXTH PRINCIPLE: The Qaarin who commits jinaayaat in Ihraam before making Umrah is liable for two penalties since he is in two states of Ihraam. The Mufrid is liable for one penalty since he is in the state of one Ihraam. However, if the Qaarin entered the Meeqaat limits without Ihraam, only one Dum will be Waajib on him.

SEVENTH PRINCIPLE: Regarding the jinaayaat of the Haram and in the penalty pertaining to game on land, there is a choice of three ways of discharging the penalty. These are:
(1) The wild animal is to be valued and if a sacrificial animal (Dum) is available for this value or price, an animal will be purchased and slaughtered.

(2) This amount may be given in charity.

(3) One may fast instead.
Any one of these three penalties will suffice. If the option of fasting is chosen, one should consult an Alim for ascertaining the method of calculating the number of fasts to be kept. This number differs.

EIGHTH PRINCIPLE: Kaffaarah (penalty or compensation) is obligatory
even if a prohibition of Ihraam is committed on account of a valid reason.
NINTH PRINCIPLE: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted without valid reason, penalty is incumbent.

TENTH PRINCIPLE: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted on account of valid reason, penalty is not obligatory.
ELEVENTH PRINCIPLE: penalty is not incumbent on a minor nor on an insane person. However, if one became insane after having entered the state of Ihraam and later regained sanity, then penalty is obligatory for any omission of Waajib acts which had occurred.

TWELFTH PRINCIPLE: If one is unable to discharge the penalty immediately, payment at a later date will be valid.
Deliberate commission of jinaayaat is a grave and major sin. Hajj is not accepted if jinaayaat are committed deliberately.
Discharging the penalty of Jinaayaat does not set one free from the sin. After payment of the penalty it is essential to make taubah (repent) and seek forgiveness from Allah Ta’ala.

      •  THE RULES OF JINAAYAT

(1) If one enters the precincts of the Meeqaat without Ihraam, Dum is Waajib. If the Ihraam is adopted after entering the Meeqaat, one Dum is Waajib. However, if one returns to the Meeqaat and dons Ihraam there, then the Dum penalty falls away.

(2) One who enters the Meeqaat without Ihraam, may return to the Meeqaat as long as one has not entered Makkah Mukarramah and commenced the acts of Hajj. Until such time that one Shaut of Tawaaf has not been rendered, one may return to the Meeqaat and recite the Talbiyah there. In this case the Dum penalty falls away.

(3) The penalty of a camel or Sadqah does not apply for the omission of any Waajib act of Umrah. In this case only a sheep or goat is obligatory. However, since the Ihraam of Umrah and the Ihraam of Hajj are the same, commission of the prohibitions of Ihraam will make Sadqah incumbent.

(4) If the Tawaaf of Umrah, the whole of it or part of it, even if it is just one Shaut, was performed in the state of either Hadth- e-Akbar (janaabat) or Hadth-e-Asghar (without wudhu), then Dum is Waajib.

(5) If Tawaaf-e-Qudoom, Nafl Tawaaf or Tawaaf-e-Wida’ were performed without wudhu, the Sadqah penalty is half Saa’ wheat (the amount of Sadaqatul Fitr) for every Shaut of the Tawaaf rendered without wudhu. If the amount or value of the Sadqah for all the Shauts is equal to the price of a Dum, then slightly less than the price of a Dum should be given as Sadqah. This same rule applies to less than half of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat made without wudhu.

(6) If the whole or the greater part of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat is made in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar (janaabat), the penalty is a camel or a cow.

(7) If less than half of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat or the whole of Tawaaf-e-Qudoom or Tawaaf-e-Wida’ or Tawaaf-e- Nafl is made in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, the penalty of one goat is Waajib.

(8) If Tawaaf Ziyaarat was made in the state of janaabat and Tawaaf Wida’ was made in the state of tahaarat (purity) during the days of Nahr (10th, 11th, 12th), then this Tawaaf Wida will be considered to be Tawaaf Ziyaarat. Tawaaf Wida’ will have to be repeated. If it is not repeated, Dum is Waajib.

What Islam says About the Beard

What Islam says About the Beard

[excerpts from The Shari Length of the Beard by Mufti Afzal Elias]

This pamphlet is to emphasize the importance and the length of the beard. Many Muslims have queried regarding this point. I have also found that people prefer keeping a beard in imitation of what’s in vogue rather than that prescribed by Nabi (Sallallâhu Alayhi Wasallam). A compilation of this nature has become important because the impact of the western way of life seems to be luring unwary Muslims into such a craze that the importance of the beard itself is being doubted and scoffed at.

To those who feel the issue is trivial to worry about, may ALLAH guide him. But to those who genuinely wish to learn and practice what is right, here are sufficient proofs from the Holy Qur’ân, Ahadîth, and learned scholars.

Concerning Adherence to the Sunnah in the Holy Qur’ân:

  • “O ye who believe! Obey Allâh, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you.” [Holy Qur’ân 4:59]
  • “O ye who believe! Obey Allâh and His Messenger, and turn not away from him when ye hear (him speak).” [Holy Qur’ân 8:20]
  • “O ye who believe! give your response to Allâh and His Messenger, when He calleth you to that which will give you life; and know that Allâh cometh in between a man and his heart, and that it is He to Whom ye shall (all) be gathered.”  [Holy Qur’ân 8:24]
  • “Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allâh an excellent exempler for him who hopes in Allâh and the Final Day, and who remembers Allâh.” [Holy Qur’ân 33:21]
  • “What Allâh has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from the people of the townships,- belongs to Allâh,- to His Messenger and to kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarer; in order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. So take what the Messenger gives you, and refrain from what he prohibits you. And fear Allâh: for Allâh is strict in Punishment.” [Holy Qur’ân 59:7]

Importance of the Beard in the Words of Rasulullah :

  1.  Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) said “I have no connection iwth one who shaves, shouts and tears his clothing eg. in grief or affication.” – Reported by Abu Darda (R.A.) in Muslim, Hadith no. 501
  2. The teachings of Hadhrat Ammar Bin Yaasir, Abdullah Ibn Umar, Sayyidina Umar, Abu Hurairah and Jaabir (R.A.), indicate that ALL used to keep beards that were one fist length or more. Hadhrat Jaabir (R.A.) had said: “We used to grow long beards and only during Hajj and Umrah did we trim them to the required length (i.e. fist length).”
  3. Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (R.A.) relates that: “He who imitates the kuffar (non-believers) and dies in that state, he will be raised up with them on the Day of Qiyâmat (Judgement).”
  4. Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) says: “Trim closely the moustache, and let the beard flow (Grow).” – Narrated Ibn Umar (R.A.) in Muslim, Hadith no. 498
  5. “Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) ordered us to trim the moustache closely and spare the beard” says Ibn Umar. – Muslim, Hadith no. 449
  6. Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam)said: “Act against contrary to the polythesists, trim closely the moustache and grow the beard.” – Reported by Ibn Umar (R.A.) in Muslim, Hadith no. 500
  7. Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) said “Trim closely the moustache and grow the beard.” – Reported by Abu Hurairah (R.A.) in Muslim, Hadith no. 501
  8. Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) said: “Anyone who shaves has no claim to the mercy of Allâh” – Reported by Ibn Abbas (R.A.) in Tibrabi
  9.  Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (R.A.) used to cut that portion (which exceeds the grip of the hand) of the beard.- Tirmidhi

The Beard according to the Great Imâms of Jurisprudence

HANAFI

Imam Muhammed (R.A.) writes in his book “Kitabul Aathaar” where he relates from Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) who relates from Hadhrat Haytham (R.A.) who relates from Ibn Umar (R.A.) that he (Ibn Umar) used to hold his beard in his hand and cut off which was longer. Imam Muhammed (R.A.) says that this is what we follow and this was the decision of Imam Abu Hanifa. Therefore, according to Hanafis, to shorten the beard less than a FIST LENGTH is HARAAM and on this is IJMA’ (concensus of opinion).

ASH-SHAFI’

Imam Ash-Shafi’ (R.A.) in his Kitabul Umm states, “To shave the beard is HARAAM.” (Shari Minhaj dar Shara Fasl Aqeeqa).

MALIKI

Shekh Ahmad Nafarawi Maliki in the commentary of Imam Abu Zayed’s booklet states, “to shave the beard is without doubt haraam according to all Imams.” It is also mention in “Tamheed” which is a commentary of “al-Muwatta” (Sunnan Imam Malik (R.A.)) that to shave the beard is HARAAM and among males the only ones to resort to this practice (of shaving) are the HERMAPHRODITES (persons who possess both male and female features and characteristics).

HANBALI

The Hanbalis in the famous Al-Khanie’a Hanbali Fatawa Kitab state that “to grow the beard is essential and to shave it is HARAAM.” Also in the Hanbali Mathab books “Sharahul Muntahaa” and “Sharr Manzoomatul Âdâb“, it is stated “The most accepted view is that it is HARAAM (prohibited) to shave the beard.”

Also note, according to scholars of Islam: “To shave off the beard is haraam (unlawful) and one who shaves his beard is, legally speaking, FASIQ (sinner); hence, it is NOT PERMISSIBLE to appoint such a man as an Imam. To say Taraweeh behind such an Imam is MAKRUH-E-TAHRIMI (near prohibition)” (Shami Vol.1, p.523)

The Durre-Mukhtar states: “No one has called it permissible to trim it (the beard) less than FIST-LENGTH as is being done by some westernized Muslims and hermaphrodites.” (Vol. 2, p. 155). Also, “It is forbidden (haraam) for a man to cut off another’s beard.” (Vol. 5, p. 359).

CONCLUSION

Thus, a Muslim who shaves or shortens his beard is like a hermaphrodite, his Imamate near prohibition, his evidence is not valid, he will not have the right to vote or being voted for. Shaving and shortening the beard is the action of non-believers. Imam Ghazzali (RA) says: “Know that the key to total bliss (Saadah) lies in following the Sunnah and in emulating the life of Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) in ALL that issues from him, and in ALL his doings even if it concerns the manner of his eating, rising, sleeping, and speaking. I do say this in relation to rituals in worship ONLY because there is no way neglecting the Sunnah reported of him in such matters – but what I say INCLUDES EVERY ASPECT of his daily life.” (Kitab al Arbain Addin, Cairo 1344, p. 89). Furthermore, in the Holy Qur’ân, Allâh told Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) to say:

“Say: “If ye do love Allâh, Follow me: Allâh will love you and forgive you your sins: For Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Holy Qur’ân 3:31]

 The daily recitation of a band of angels of Allâh is “Holy is the Being who adorned men with beards and women with braids” (Takmela e Bahr al Raiq, Vol. 3, p. 331)

Lastly, Allâh Ta’ala says in the Holy Qur’ân:

“And when the true believers are called to Allâh and His Rasul (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) [to accept and practice the law and commands of Allâh and His Rasul (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam)] that he may pass judgement upon them, their ONLY reply is ‘We hear and obey.’ Such men shall surely prosper.” [24:51]

 THE CALL IS TO GROW A FIST LENGTH BEARD, LET US HEAR AND OBEY TO PROSPER.

 


The Blessed Beard… Grow it, what’s so hard to understand?

(Commentary) Muslims are overcome with western influence in their lives and it’s easy to forget, nay, neglect the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him). Little do these Muslims realize the magnitude of their actions in imitating Kufaar (see Hadith section). Hopefully the information presented herein will enlighten those. And then there are others who claim that the matters concerning beards is a “little” issue not worthy of mention nor practice. To them I say get off the denial bandwagon, you’re a Muslim! Follow the Prophet (Peace be upon him) in all aspects of life, for he was the best of examples. I couldn’t tell you how many times I’ve mistaken a Muslim brother (outside of the Masjid) for a kaafir on account of his clean-shaven, well oiled, face. How can I say “Assalaamu Alaikum Brother!” when I do not know if he is a Muslim. Yet that very brother then wonders why he was ignored! From one brother to another, I say: “Grow a beard, then, since it also promotes Brotherhood in the real world. Stand with your Brothers, be one. We know you are handsome without it (a beard), but who cares? What matters is how Allâh (S.W.T.) sees you. And when you do grow a beard, don’t mock the Sunnah, please grow it correctly, i.e. FIST LENGTH. That is the prescribed length and no shorter (see Hadeeth section)…” Peace.   Original document copied from http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/2193/beard.html