Fears for daughters’ rights lead some Sunnis to adopt Shiaism

Wednesday, November 14, 2007
Fears for daughters’ rights lead some Sunnis to adopt Shiism
Vast difference in inheritance formulas causes many couples to convert – and not everyone approves
 
By Agence France Presse (AFP)

 

Ines Bel Aiba

Agence France Press

BEIRUT: Nada had no choice. The Sunni Lebanese woman decided to become a Shiite because that branch of Islam guarantees that her daughters will one day be her sole heiresses.

“If I became a Shiite it was not out of conviction,” Nada told AFP. Had she not converted, the girls’ uncle would receive the bulk of her inheritance when she died, in line with Sunni laws.

Shiites, a minority community in Islam, have sometimes been at odds with the Sunnis in the Arab world, but in Lebanon conversions between the two branches are easy and mostly done for practical purposes.

In Lebanon, religious tribunals rule on marriage, divorce and inheritance. For both Sunnis and Shiites, women receive one-third and men two-thirds of an inheritance.

Problems arise when a Sunni couple only has girls. They would inherit just a small part of the assets, while the larger part of the inheritance would go to the closest male relatives – grandfathers, uncles or cousins.

One solution for Sunni couples in such a situation is to become Shiites, as the sect’s religious regulations allow daughters to be the sole heiresses in the absence of male offspring.

Sunni couple Hassan and Sana Tawil became Shiite about 30 years ago because they had two daughters.

“We saw atrocious things happening in the family, such as an uncle who wanted to take everything from a cousin. It made an impression on us when we were children,” Hassan said.

They may be Shiites on paper but the Tawils remain deeply Sunni in practice.

 “I stayed profoundly Sunni,” said Sana, confirming that she raised her daughters “in line with Sunni values.”

“Even famous Sunni politicians became Shiites for the same reason,” she explains, citing Riad Solh, who was prime minister at the time of Lebanon’s independence in 1943 and who had five daughters.

In line with Lebanon’s confessional political system, the country’s prime ministers are Sunni – although at least four of them became Shiites because they did not have sons.

Like other couples in the same situation, the Tawils went to a Shiite court, where they converted before a sheikh who, they said, seemed to be very aware of the real motives behind their conversion.

“The sheikh looked at me and asked: ‘Do you have children?’ I said yes,” recalled Sana.

“He said: ‘How many?’ I said two. He asked: ‘Boys?’ I said no.

“Then he just looked at me and nodded. And I became a Shiite,” the 63-year-old woman said with a smile.

Sheikh Mohammad Noqari, director general of Dar al-Fatwa, the highest Sunni religious authority in Lebanon, confirmed that some Sunnis were becoming Shiites – but expressed disapproval.

“It is true that some Sunnis are doing this,” he said. “But if someone converts from one Muslim confession to another for material reasons, it is not really correct.”

But for Sheikh Jaafar Fadlallah, from the Shiite Sharia Islamic Institute, converting is “an issue of personal choice.”

“Nothing should prevent a Muslim from converting to the  branch that suits him best,” Fadlallah said.

Shiite authorities say that about 350 Sunnis become Shiites every year.

According to sociologist Marlene Nasr, the ramifications of such decisions are not always pleasant. “There are sometimes cases where people are ostracized” after converting, she said, “but not by the religious authorities – rather by their own families.”

Talal Khodari, a lawyer specializing in family legal affairs, said such conversions were “common,” although often “not accepted and not taken very well” in Lebanese society.

He also said that the issue sometimes causes additional family problems because male relatives feel that they are being accused, by implication, of being willing to take what rightfully belongs to their female relatives.


Copyright (c) 2007 The Daily Star
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Islam’s Path East: China

One of Islam’s main entry points into China was the Pearl River port of Quanzhou.

The majority of China’s Muslims are Turkic peoples living in the vast Xinjiang region of northwest China. The rest are mainly Hui – either descendants of Chinese converts to Islam or the offspring of Chinese intermarriages with Muslim immigrants whose appearance is distinctly Chinese. They live in sizeable communities in the former Silk Road oases of western and central China, in the southern province of Yunnan, and in the industrial cities and ports of the east. 

Contacts between Muslims and Chinese began very early. Arab merchants traded in silk even before the advent of Islam, and tradition has it that the new religion was brought to their port-city trading colonies by Muslim missionaries in the seventh century.

In 755, a contingent of 4000 soldiers, mostly Muslim Turks, was sent by the Abbasid caliph Abu Jafar al-Mansur to help the Chinese emperor Su Tsung quell a revolt by one of his military commanders, An LuShan. Following the recapture of the imperial capital, Ch’angan (today’s Xian), these soldiers settled in China, married Chinese wives and founded inland Muslim colonies similar to those established by the traders on the coast. 

Islam made its first real inroads into what is now western China in the middle of the 10th century, with the conversion of Sultan Sutuq Bughrakhan of Kashgar and his subsequent conquest of the Silk Road oases of Yarkand and Khotan in southwest Xinjiang. 

During the Song Dynasty (960 – 1279), China experienced spectacular economic growth. This stimulated expansion of the Muslim mercantile communities – particularly in Ch’ang – an, the eastern terminus of the Silk Roads, and in the port cities of Quanzhou and Guangzhou, where Muslims largely governed the internal affairs of their own neighborhoods, building mosques and appointing qadis to adjudicate according to Islamic law.

But although some Chinese merchants involved in international trade did become Muslims, other converts were few, and Islam in China was confined largely to Muslim immigrants and their descendants. Until, that is, the Mongol invasion overthrew the Song Dynasty and ushered in what Chinese Muslims regard as the “golden age” of Islam in China. Continue reading “Islam’s Path East: China”

The original sin in Islam

According to Wikipedia

Unlike Christianity, which teaches that all the children of Adam are sinful for Adam’s sin, Islam teaches that all humans are innocent by birth and they become sinful only when they consciously commit a sin. Islam regards the concept of “original sin” and the need for atonement by God Himself – via dying on the Cross – as a pure invention of those who came after Jesus Christ, declaring themselves as Christians.

Another important point to bear in mind about the Islamic concept of sin is that one man’s sin cannot be transferred to another; nor can the reward due to a person be transferred either. Every individual is responsible only for his or her actions, for God is never unjust. This is made clear in the following in Surah 17, verse 25:

  • {Who receiveth guidance, receiveth it for his own benefit: who goeth astray doth so to his own loss. No bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another: nor would We punish until We had sent a messenger [to give warning].}*

[edit] Excerpts from Qur’an

Is it certain that it was Adam and not Eve who was tempted? Irrespective of this, both are forgiven together, the concept being that Man and Woman were created equally, by God, of the same material and therefore have equal rights to redemption.

This episode is mentioned in the Qur’an in several places. Amongst them are:

  • But the Satan made them both fall from it, and caused them to depart from that (state) in which they were; and We said: Get forth, some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time. 2:36
  • But the Shaitan made an evil suggestion to them that he might make manifest to them what had been hidden from them of their evil inclinations, and he said: Your Lord has not forbidden you this tree except that you may not both become two angels or that you may (not) become of the immortals. And he swore to them both: Most surely I am a sincere adviser to you. Then he caused them to fall by deceit; so when they tasted of the tree, their evil inclinations became manifest to them, and they both began to cover themselves with the leaves of the garden; and their Lord called out to them: Did I not forbid you both from that tree and say to you that the Shaitan is your open enemy? They said: Our Lord! We have been unjust to ourselves, and if Thou forgive us not, and have (not) mercy on us, we shall certainly be of the losers. 7:20-23

Adam and Eve are forgiven by God after they repent:

  • Then Adam received (some) words from his Lord, so He turned to him mercifully; surely He is Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful. 2:37

Therefore, the idea that the sin propagates to their offspring is categorically refused by Muslims, citing verses such as:

  • Say: What! shall I seek a Lord other than Allah? And He is the Lord of all things; and no soul earns (evil) but against itself, and no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another; then to your Lord is your return, so He will inform you of that in which you differed. 6:164
  • Allah does not impose upon any soul a duty but to the extent of its ability; for it is (the benefit of) what it has earned and upon it (the evil of) what it has wrought: Our Lord! do not punish us if we forget or make a mistake; Our Lord! do not lay on us a burden as Thou didst lay on those before us, Our Lord do not impose upon us that which we have not the strength to bear; and pardon us and grant us protection and have mercy on us, Thou art our Patron, so help us against the unbelieving people. 2:286

That is to say, all children are born without sin in the state of purity.

Does the Quran or Muhammad promote violence?

 
 

 

 

     

 

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Audio Does the Quran or Muhammad promote violence?

Does the Quran or Muhammad promote violence?

By: Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq
IslamiCity* –

 

Toward Understanding Muhammad:
Some issues in peace and violence

 

In the aftermath of September 11 when President Bush visited the Islamic Center of Washington DC, both to reassure the Muslims in America and to create public awareness against prejudice, he remarked: “The face of terror is not the true faith of Islam. That’s not what Islam is all about. Islam is peace.” Of course, Bush is, first and foremost, a politician and therefore his remarks should be taken with a grain of salt – actually, a lot of salt.

 

The American President was quickly rebuffed even by a number of his compatriots, who vehemently disagreed with the President’s diplomatic stance. “… a large number of foreign policy hawks — some of them with advisory roles in the Bush administration — have joined religious conservatives in taking issue with Bush’s characterizations. … they say the claim is dishonest and destined to fail.” [Conservatives Dispute Bush Portrayal of Islam as Peaceful] A pro-Israel, conservative or neocon, Daniel Pipes, sermonized that since calls for “Death to America” in 1979 in Iran, “… some 600 Americans have been murdered by militant Muslims. And still the U.S. government fails to ‘proclaim militant Islam our strategic enemy’ but instead goes along with blandishments about ‘good Muslims’ and ‘true Islam’ being a religion of peace.” [Militant Islam Is Still Enemy No.1]

 

In contrast to the above two categories of non-Muslim stance, there are two parallel camps within Muslims. One camp on the fringe has no qualms in taking a public position that Islam enjoins fighting and subduing the non-Muslims, and this is a sublime religious duty. They urge the Muslims to take up a combative struggle – armed if necessary – to resist the evil of the “infidels” (kuffar) and to facilitate Islam’s victory over others. They cite the example of the Prophet as to how under his leadership the world of the unbelievers was subdued.

 

Repudiating this group of extremist Muslims, there is the broader Muslim community that finds an echo of their own position in what President Bush said and they would like the world to know that Islam means peace and Islam is peaceful. Period. This group is very much troubled by the hate-mongering and violent posturing of the fringe extremists among Muslims. Thus, they would like to underscore and highlight the essential dimension of Islam, which in their view is peace.

 

So, is Islam essentially intolerant and violent or is it essentially tolerant or peaceful? The fact of the matter is that in presenting Islam as essentially peaceful or violent, there is a false and an unacceptable reductionism, and trying to cast Islam in such reductionist framework inevitably leads to either misunderstanding or misrepresentation.

 

A few premises

 

At the center of this whole debate are three aspects: the Qur’an, the life of the Prophet, and the historical experience of Muslims. But first let me identify a few pertinent premises.

 

(1) Muslims hold the Qur’an as the ultimate source of divine guidance. Even the Prophet could not have contradicted the Qur’an, let alone anyone else. (2) The Qur’anic verses should not be taken in isolation from other verses or from the Prophetic experience. (3) The Qur’anic verses, commands or otherwise, have different levels of priority; some are general in scope and are to be treated or upheld as norms, while other verses might be contextual, delimited or transitional. (4) Life is an integrated whole, and Islam is a guidance for the whole life in a comprehensive or holistic manner, where a sense or goal of balance is of supreme importance. And (5) life needs to be treated as life, which from the Islamic viewpoint should be understood as based on Fitrah, the innate human nature.

 

Some historical observations Continue reading “Does the Quran or Muhammad promote violence?”

WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF Tazkiyyah?

WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF Tazkiyyah?

Tazkiyah means The purification of one’s heart and the soul.

“Allah conferred indeed a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger (i.e., Muhammad-sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) from among themselves reciting unto them His Verses (i.e., the Qur’an ) and purifying them (from sins by their following him) and instructing them in the Book (i.e., the Qur’an ) and Wisdom (i.e., the Sunnah), while before that they had been in manifest error.” – The Qur’an 3:164.

The Qur’an and Sunnah are the only sources for tazkiyah. The Prophet Muhammad- sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam-is the purest of mankind in soul and his character was that of Qur’an. There is none who approaches him in this. For this reason he is the model for tazkiyah. Allah says: “Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example to follow…” – The Qur’an 33:21.

The Prophet’s Companions and the rest of Salaf-us-Saliheen are also, as a whole, a fine model to follow in tazkiyah. There is no way of drawing closer to Allah except by adhering to what the Prophet Muhammad-sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam-came with.

The Prophet-sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam-has said: “If anyone introduces into this affair of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected.” – Al-Bukhari and Muslim. Continue reading “WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF Tazkiyyah?”

Some Hadiths

On the authority of Abu Hurairah ra, who said that Rasulullah saw said : Allah swt said : ” I am as My servant thinks I am. I am with him when he makes mention of Me. If he makes mention of Me to himself, I make mention of him to Myself. And if he makes mention of Me in an assembly, I make mention of him in an assembly better than it. And if he draws near to Me a hand’s span, I draw near to him an arm’s length. And if he draws near to Me an arm’s length, I draw near to him a greater length. And if he comes to Me walking, I go to him at speed ” .

(Hadist Qudsi: Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)

The Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) taught the supplication: “O God, join our hearts, mend our social relationships, guide us to the path of peace, bring us from darkness to light, and save us from obscenities both outward or inward.” Sunan of Abu-Dawood, Hadith 367 .

The Prophet sws said : The ones who loved/practised my sunnah will be near to on Judgement Day. ( someone pls quote where)

Holy Prophet said:
Were it not for fear of troubling my disciples, verily I would order them to clean their teeth before every prayer.

God is pure and loveth purity and cleanliness.

Prophet Mohamed (sas) has said ,

“1.Every bone of men’s fingers and toes must give sadaqa every day the sun rises.

2.If one gives justice between two men it is sadaqa.

3. If one helps a man with his beast, loading or lifting his goods on it, it is sadaqa.

4.A good word is sadaqa.

5.Every step one takes towards prayer is saaqa.

6.Anyone removes anything injurious from the road it is sadaqa.”

(Bukhari and Muslim)

The advice concerning Shirk, Parents and false witness

Shirk, Parents and false witness


Among the major sins is disobedience to parents. Narrated by Abu Bakra (ra) Allah’s messenger (saw) said: “Shall I inform you of the greatest sins and in another variation he repeated this three times. We the companions said, “Certainly, O messenger of Allah! He (saw) said: “Associating anyone with Allah, disobedience to parents”. The prophet sat up straight after he had reclined and added, “And I warn you against false utterance and false witness, “And I warn you against false utterance and false witness”. The messenger of Allah (saw) kept saying that warning until we thought that he would not stop”.
Bukhari&Muslim

The messenger of Allah (saw) always repeated his sentences three times to make an emphasis. Shirk (associating partners with Allah) will not be forgiven.(if one dies without asking for forgiveness. And the one who is disobedient to his parents will definitely spend some time in the hellfire however this action will not take you out of the fold of Islam. Grandparents are also included however parents have more right. Before a man accuses someone else of an action he must be a 100% sure and anything less is unacceptable.

Explained by Abu abdillah Yunus Ibn Mahmoud

IN DEFIANCE OF THE QUR’AN AND The SUNNAH

IN DEFIANCE OF THE QUR’AN AND SUNNAH

The following are excerpts and quotations from well-known Sufi works presented along with corresponding beliefs from outside the fold of Islam. Relevant texts from the Qur’ân and the Sunnah are also quoted for the sake of comparison, so that Muslims may judge for themselves whether Sufi beliefs are Islamic or not. Each quotation is footnoted with the reference from which it is taken.

The Sufis claim: “The ways unto God are as numerous as the number of creatures in the world”. Ibn Mas’ood, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s) made a straight line on the ground with his hand, then he said, ‘This is the straight way of Allah.’ Then he made (short) line on each side of the straight line; then he said, ‘These (short) lines, each one has a Shaytaan inviting people to it.’ Then he recited the verse: meaning, ‘And this is My path straight. So follow it, and do not follow (other) ways, lest they lead you away from My path.’ Continue reading “IN DEFIANCE OF THE QUR’AN AND The SUNNAH”

AL- Kaba’ir Major Sins in Islam

AL- Kaba’ir Major Sins

1. Associating partners with Allaah (Shirk)

Great Shirk: worshipping beings other than Allaah (proof all over Qur’ân)

Small Shirk: Riya

The Prophet (saw), “Should I not inform you of that which I fear for you even more than the dangers of dajjaal? It is the hidden shirk: A person stands to pray and he beautifies his prayer because he sees the people looking at him”. (Sahih; Sunan ibn Majah)

2. Committing murder: (Furqan; 68)

3. Performing Sorcery (2: 102)

4. Not performing the Prayers (Maryam: 59)

5. With holding the Zakah (Charity) (3: 180)

6. Breaking the fast of Ramadhan or not fasting in that month without a valid excuse.

Prophet (saw) said, “Islaam is built upon five pillars: testifying that there is no true god except Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, performing the prayers, paying the Zakah, making the pilgrimage to the house, and fasting the month of Ramadhan(Sahih al-Jami # 2837)

7. Not performing the pilgrimage when one has the ability to do so (above hadith)

8. Disobeying one’s parents (al-Isra: 23)

9. Cutting off the ties of relationships (Muhammad: 22)

10. Committing adultery or fornication (al-Isra: 30)

11. Committing sodomy Continue reading “AL- Kaba’ir Major Sins in Islam”

TRUE SALAF-E-SALIHEEN

It is quite easy to come across the term “salaf-e-saliheen” or pious predecessors when the history and golden age of Islam is discussed or when the lives of the great luminaries of this ummah are discussed. However, the extent to which these terms are understood is very limited. This short article is an attempt to explain who the pious predecessors were and their contribution to the progress and propagation of Islam, without delving into any terminology or unnecessary differences of opinion, simply shedding light on a few important aspects regarding this topic and at the same time, making the reader aware of the relevance of the “salaf-e-saliheen” to the Muslims of today.

Character of the Messenger of Allah

It cannot be hidden from anyone who has been given understanding or applies himself to thinking that the Messenger of Allah was endowed with the most excellent qualities and virtues beyond number. Any attempt to do justice to his status would fail miserably, though tongues may dry out and pens dry in trying to praise him. Thus, when the Messenger of Allah was made the most perfect example and bestowed with perfection of character and attributes, it was natural that the hearts of people were captivated by his noble person and that in the midst of the prevailing injustice and ignorance, they accepted him as their guide, following him and abiding by his noble teachings. Continue reading “TRUE SALAF-E-SALIHEEN”

First ten days of Zul Hijjah

 

When Allah Ta’ala takes an oath upon some aspect, it is to illustrate the great significance of that aspect in the sight of Allah Ta’ala. Among the various things which Allah Ta’ala has taken an oath upon in the Qur’an is “ten nights” (Surah Al-Fajr). Many Mufassireen (commentators) are of the view that this refers to the first ten nights of Zul-Hijjah.

The Ahaadith also mention the virtue of the first ten days of Zul Hijjah. It is reported in one hadith that no action is more beloved to Allah Ta’ala than the action performed in these ten days, whether it be nafil salaah, zikr, charity, etc. (Sahih Bukhari).

REWARD EQUAL TO ONE YEAR

In another Hadith it is reported that one fast in these ten days is equivalent to the reward of fasting for one year (the tenth of Zul-Hijjah is excluded since it is not permissible to fast on the day of Eidul-Adha). Likewise, performing Ibaadah in any of these nights earns the reward of Ibaadah in Lailatul Qadr (Tirmizi).

Furthermore, among these ten days is the day of Arafah (9th Zul-Hijjah). Regarding this day Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is reported to have said: “I have hope in Allah Ta’ala that the fast of the day of Arafah will be an atonement for the (minor) sins of the past and forthcoming year” (Tirmizi). In a narration of Tabraani it is reported that one should in these ten days recite the following excessively: Tasbeeh (Subhanallah), Tahleel (La ilaha illallah), Tahmeed (Al-Hamdulillah) and Takbeer (Allahu Akbar).

DEPRIVATION

Thus the first ten days and nights of Zul-Hijjah are extremely virtuous. One should therefore engage oneself in even more Ibaadah during this time. One should fast on as many of these days as possible. To ignore these virtues and be indifferent to the significance of these days and nights is indeed a great deprivation. It is also a sign of ingratitude to Allah Ta’ala for the great opportunity He has given us to earn tremendously multiplied rewards for little acts of devotion. Hence let us not ignore the gift of Allah Ta’ala. Instead let us take the maximum advantage of this gift.

Related Article: http://www.jamiat.org.za/isinfo/Significance_first_ten_days_Zil_Hijjah.html

The Truth Abot Christmas

 

Christmas Is Spiritual Adultery

Taking an evergreen tree, putting it in your house, decorating it with lights, sitting in the dark, and adoring it to Christmas carols is spiritual adultery. You profess to love Jesus, but you do so with the mementos and techniques of other lovers – the world and pagan religion. You are not content with Christ’s pure gospel – for it has no Mass of Christ. You have added the world’s seductions to keep you happy in your marriage to Christ. He is highly offended at your whorish ways.

120 Reasons Against Christmas
There are many Bible reasons not to celebrate Christmas for those who esteem God’s precepts concerning all things to be right and that hate every false way (Ps 119:128). The God of heaven has specified exactly how He wants to be worshipped. He does not accept inventions or modifications. And He seeks those who will worship Him in spirit and truth (John 4:23-24). You are living in the perilous times of the last days – a time of great compromise by so-called Christians (II Tim 3:1 – 4:5 ). Where do you stand?

How to Stop Celebrating
When the Lord reveals the evil of pagan holy days, there are questions about informing others of the change in your life. Here are a few suggestions to be wise and righteous before God without being unduly antagonistic or offensive to those who cannot see (Rom 12:18; I Cor 7:15).

What About the Seventh Day?
The Seventh-Day Adventists have made a golden calf out of the Old Testament Sabbath and the seventh day of the week. But what does the Bible say? Did Noah worship on Saturday? Did the apostles and early Christians worship on Saturday? Are Catholics behind Sunday worship? Who is Ellen G. Harmon and why are her writings considered greater than Scripture by Seventh-Day Adventists?

Who is this? What is she doing? Revelation 3:20 is the most abused verse in the Bible. Jesus does not look like an effeminate, she-man hippie. Jesus does not beg at the hearts of sinners. His appearance is very different (Rev 1:12-18; 19:11-16); He opens the hearts of sinners by His great power (Acts 16:14; Rev 3:7). and Revelation 3:20 is for believing saints only! Get this verse right today, and never let anyone deceive you with it again!

Eternal Life Is a Gift
In a few years, you will get to die! Yes, you will get to die … to end the decay, pain, rot, trouble, and weakness of your body. Why must you rot and die? Because you sinned against a holy God. Atheists and evolutionists have no clue about death, but God explained it clearly. He hates sin. You sinned. You must die. But before you get to die, you will rot inside and outside from the beauty, glory, health, strength, and vigor of youth. Life is hopeless … without the gift of God … which is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Who Is the Seed of Abraham?
God made fantastic promises to Abraham and his seed 4000 years ago. Consider the promises. An innumerable family! A land for an everlasting possession! Destruction of enemies! Blessings on all nations of the earth! Who is this seed? They are surely the most blessed people on earth! Paul warned about Jewish fables 2000 years ago (Titus 1:14), but most churches are teaching them today. The rightful heirs are being ignored!

Do Commas Matter?
If you love the Bible, this short article is for you. Most Christians do not care. Rick Warren and novels like The Message have destroyed concern for God’s words. Paul argued doctrine on two historical events 430 years apart in Galatians 3:17, and Old Testament history should agree with it. But modern versions, in their haste to get rid of commas and make the Bible ‘easier to understand’, have created a contradiction. Have fun!

Best Book on Bible Prophecy! We are offering below our cost and with free shipping the best book on Bible prophecy available today.Having surveyed hundreds of books about prophecy, this one is more concise, easier to read, better documented, and more accurate than any we have found. This offer is to earnestly contend for the apostolic faith and oppose both Preterism and Futurism in the whole world.

Proverbs Commentary
What could the wisest man on earth charge per hour to authoritatively answer all life’s questions? $500 an hour? $5,000 an hour? But here is God’s inspired wisdom by King Solomon free of charge!

Proverbs 1:17 – What kind of people are as dumb as stupid birds?
“, “Proverbs 1:26 – “I also will laugh at your calamity”; a sober warning from Lady Wisdom.
“, “Proverbs 1:32 – Why are some people dumb enough to buy lottery tickets?
“, “Proverbs 2:5 – What are the simple steps to growing in wisdom?
“, “Proverbs 2:18 – Whores always build their houses on a slippery slope!
“, “Proverbs 3:10 – What is a sure way to financial success?
“, “Proverbs 3:11 – What are the four reasons bad things happen to good people?
“, “Proverbs 4:3 – What do loving parents do to prove their love?
“, “Proverbs 4:15 – How close should you get to foolish persons?
“, “Proverbs 5:3 – What about a women is delicious like honey and oil?
“, “Proverbs 5:19 – Does breast size really matter?
“, “Proverbs 6:7 – If you are not a self-starter, you are dumber than an ant!
“, “Proverbs 6:28 – What do fire walkers and chat rooms have in common?
“, “Proverbs 7:9 – What time of day does most fornication take place?
“, “Proverbs 7:13 – What are some of the methods of a whore?
“, “Proverbs 7:17 – What perfumed bed should you run away from fast?
“, “Proverbs 7:18 – How can making love all night long be horribly painful?
“, “Proverbs 7:18 – The enticing words of a strange woman; reject her invitation to hell!
“, “Proverbs 7:21 – How can a woman force a man to yield?
“, “Proverbs 8:12 – What is the source of witty inventions?
“, “Proverbs 9:8 – Why should you not waste your time with a scorner?
“, “Proverbs 9:17 – Why are stolen waters sweet? and who uses such reasoning?
“, “Proverbs 10:4 – How can a weak handshake indicate that a person is lazy?
“, “Proverbs 10:5 America is the land of opportunity, but you must take advantage of it!
“, “Proverbs 10:19 – Do you know what grows in proportion to the words you speak?
“, “Proverbs 11:16 – What is the simple and sure way for a woman to always be desired?
“, “Proverbs 11:24 – Do you want some economic wisdom never taught at Harvard?
“, “Proverbs 11:26 – Is cornering a market a great business skill, or evil cruelty?
“, “Proverbs 12:4 – There is a disease worse than leukemia, because it is not terminal!
“, “Proverbs 12:10 – How can you prove your righteousness with a Siamese cat?
“, “Proverbs 12:11 – Farming is a real job, unlike many modern “business opportunities”!
“, “Proverbs 12:27 – There is a problem when you don’t clean what you got hunting!
“, “Proverbs 14:4 – Do you know the “means of production” are taught in the Bible?
“, “Proverbs 14:23 – What should you do when someone offers you a “business opportunity”?
“, “Proverbs 15:1 – There is a sure way to stop the anger of someone you offend!
“, “Proverbs 15:15 – It is possible for your life to be a continual feast!
“, “Proverbs 15:28 – What should you say when you don’t know the answer to a question?
“, “Proverbs 16:2 – There is nothing worse than self-righteousness! Consider it well.
“, “Proverbs 16:9 – How can you and the Lord find the perfect husband?
“, “Proverbs 16:31 – What makes gray hair a crown of glory to a man or woman?
“, “Proverbs 17:1 – When is a saltine cracker better than a filet mignon dinner?
“, “Proverbs 17:2 – Is discrimination a real problem, or just an excuse?
“, “Proverbs 18:13 – Does conversation activate your tongue more than your ears?
“, “Proverbs 19:13 – How can a wife be like a Chinese water torture?
“, “Proverbs 20:14 – Did you know it is possible to pay too little for some things?
“, “Proverbs 21:9 – Why do some men always find reasons to stay away from home?
“, “Proverbs 22:6 – It is possible to guarantee the future success of your children!
“, “Proverbs 22:11 – There is an easy way to win the powerful people in your life!
“, “Proverbs 19:11 – You can become glorious by learning to pass over offences!
“, “Proverbs 22:15 – Foolishness is a genetic fault in children, but there is an antidote!
“, “Proverbs 22:21 – Absolute truth is in the world, and it is found only in the Bible!
“, “Proverbs 23:5 – Does your money grow wings and fly away? What should you do?
“, “Proverbs 23:31 – What does it mean not to look on wine when it is red?
“, “Proverbs 25:15 – Do you know how to persuade those in power over you?
“, “Proverbs 25:17 – After three days, dead fish stink; so do visitors staying too long!
“, “Proverbs 26:8 – Giving attention to a fool is like hitting yourself in the head!
“, “Proverbs 26:27 – What goes around comes around; believe it!
“, “Proverbs 27:8 – You are a lost bird, if you want to change your role in life!
“, “Proverbs 27:18 – Want to get promoted? Keep the fig tree for your employer!
“, “Proverbs 27:23 – Watch your business closely, it could get away from you!
“, “Proverbs 28:9 – If you don’t like preaching, your prayers will not be heard!
“, “Proverbs 30:17 – Rolling your eyes at your parents is a horrible crime!
“, “Proverbs 30:25 – Are you as smart as an ant? They know how to save!
“, “Proverbs 31:2 – Behind every great man there is a great woman – his mother!
“, “Proverbs 31:2 – Behind every great man there is a great woman – his mother!
“, “Proverbs 31:22 – The virtuous woman is a great cooker and a great looker!
“, “Proverbs 31:30 – Wives can be chosen three ways – two are foolish, but one is foolproof!
Proverbs 20:14 – Did you know it is possible to pay too little for some things?
Proverbs 30:17 – Rolling your eyes at your parents is a horrible crime!
Proverbs 31:2 – Behind every great man there is a great woman – his mother!

Does the KJV have Contradictions?
Those who love modern versions of the Bible look for “contradictions” in the King James Version. Their favorite “contradiction” is Ahaziah’s age when he became king. Little do they know that this “contradiction” contains hidden wisdom for humble believers. Little do they know they have introduced a serious contradiction in their own versions. Have fun with this case study! Be thankful you do not have a seminary degree (Matt 11:25-26)!

Does Your Church Have a Piano?
The Old Testament had musical instruments (Ps 150:1-6). But Jesus said God wanted new worship in spirit and truth (John 4:23-24). The New Testament requires singing with understanding – not making noise on instruments (I Cor 14:15; Eph 5:19; Col 3:16).

Christian Liberty
Balance is merely compromise, unless God defines the balance! The Bible and true Christianity are very strict where God has spoken, but they protect personal freedom in all other matters. Do you know God’s balance? Do you earnestly contend for the apostolic faith but allow men their preferences in all other things? Pharisees in all denominations make rules about personal things that God left up to you. But the truth allows great freedom and liberty in such things.

Once Saved, Always Saved
“Once saved, always saved” is a popular mantra of easy-believism that turns God’s grace into lasciviousness by promising eternal life to those with ungodly lives. It has no Biblical basis as it is commonly used. The God of heaven will not lose a single one of His elect, but the concept of “once saved, always saved,” based on decisional regeneration that obligates God rather than God’s work of grace leading to godly evidence, is wrong in both phrases.

Marry the Perfect Wife
Marry the Perfect Husband

Divorce and dysfunctional marriages are everywhere. Parents want their children to do better than they did. God created love, marriage, and sex. He knows more about these things than all counselors and sociologists combined. Here are score sheets from the Bible for men and women. Measure a few friends to get the feel. Let the scoring criteria and their definitions provoke conversation. Parents, do not violate the pass/fail rule (Pr 31:30).

 

For Ministers Only! Updated Weekly
The churches of Jesus Christ depend on faithful ministers working hard to defend the truth and oppose the world. For this reason, God inspired three Pastoral Epistles from Paul’s pen. With many pastors compromising today, as they rush to scratch the itching ears of worldly Christians, there is a need to remember the solemn duties charged to them at ordination (I Tim 6:13-16; II Tim 3:1 – 4:5). This web document, an online minister’s handbook, will be updated weekly with one more reminder from the Bible to provoke the soldiers in Christ’s kingdom.

 

Denominational Survey of Baptism
Jesus, Mary, and the apostles were Baptists. John the Baptist baptized them all. When you are immersed by a Baptist preacher, especially one named John the Baptist, you are a Baptist! There were no Catholics, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Methodists, Campbellites, Russellites, Pentecostals, Mormons, or other manmade denominations. Do you care enough about truth to check your baptism by this simple test of five rules? You should.

Every Word of God
Jesus said we must live by every word of God (Luke 4:4). Do you have a word-perfect Bible? Book publishers crank out a new Bible version every few months to pad their income statements, but each one has different words! Pastors tell more and more stories with less and less scripture in fewer and fewer minutes. The words of God are being lost and wasted. Jesus and Paul argued and preached from single words, so you better have a Bible that preservers each word and a pastor that preaches each word.

Seven Proofs of Unconditional Salvation
how are you saved? Did God save you by free grace? Or did you save yourself by some act? Or did you do something to cooperate with God and make Jesus Christ’s work effective for you? There are only two ways a sinner can be saved. Either God saves him unconditionally as a free gift of His grace, or he must do something in order to obtain it for himself. There is no other choice. All religions and doctrines are either unconditional or conditional. Either man does nothing for his salvation, or he must do something.

Should Christians Tithe?
A growing fad among some Christians is to deny tithing. Since there are no specific directions for tithing in the New Testament, they rejoice that they can skip this duty. So they leap on the no-tithing bandwagon and roll out their rabid rhetoric. It is time to take off their wheels and let the water of God’s word overwhelm them.

Do You Know My King?
Do you have 6 minutes and 38 seconds to rejoice in praise about the Lord Jesus Christ? Here is a Baptist pastor that loved to praise Jesus Christ. S.M. Lockridge (his initials stand for Shadrach Meshach) was the pastor of Calvary Baptist Church in San Diego from 1953 to 1993. While we cannot and do not endorse everything he believed or taught, we do appreciate this introduction to the Lord Jesus Christ as King!

A Mighty Man’s Life
Men! Have the thorns of jobs, riches, and pleasures choked out all desire for true success (Luke 8:14)? What have you accomplished today other than moving one day closer to death? When are you going to wake up and be a mighty man for the Lord? Save yourself from the bitter agony of a wasted life.

The Bible Babel
What do the Tower of Babel and modern Bible versions have in common? In both places God confounded the efforts of men who exalted their abilities and ideas over the word of God. He left them babbling in both places. If you want to see how confused and ignorant so-called Bible scholars are, take a look at their translating efforts of I Samuel 13:1. There is a Bible version that has been trusted for 400 years and can still be fully trusted today. Buy it! Read it! Trust it! Demand it!

Perilous Times of the Last Days
The greatest threat to the kingdom of Jesus Christ today is carnal, compromising, effeminate, and worldly Christianity. False teachers promote it on every side. The cure is simple, but few ministers will use it, since most hearers are demanding fables and entertainment instead. The importance of this prophecy cannot be overstated. You are living in the fulfillment of the perilous times!


 

Did Jesus Make Wine for a Wedding Feast?
Jesus had to deal with men in His day who enforced manmade rules in the name of religious tradition and self-righteousness – they were the scribes and Pharisees. The leaven (doctrine) of the Pharisees is still around today. Men condemn any use of wine or other alcoholic beverages and try to twist the Bible to support their manmade tradition. Here is the Bible refutation of an article by a respected teacher against the use of wine.

 

NKJV

Is the NKJV the word of God?
Most who use the New King James Version believe they are using a modern edition of the King James Version, because that is what Thomas Nelson Publishers wants them to believe. But the NKJV will condemn itself quite easily as not being the word of God or the KJV! Remember, the closer a counterfeit is to the original, the more difficult it is to identify as a fraud. If man must live by every word of God, we do not want to lose a single one (Luke 4:4).

The Witness of 70AD
Jesus Christ is Lord! There is no single greater evidence or proof of the divine origin of Christianity, the great glory and power of the Lord Jesus Christ as King of the kingdom of God, and the accuracy and reliability of the Bible than the prophecies and their fulfillments regarding the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman armies under Titus in 70 AD.

Forgotten Sins
Do you know all the sins God hates? Or have you forgotten a few? What about emulations, prognostication, debate, purloining, and surfeiting? Jesus said if you break even the least of His commandments and teach men it is okay, you are the least in the kingdom of heaven (Matt 5:19). Many sins have been forgotten, because (1) men focus on sensational sins, (2) Pharisees overlook any sins of the heart, (3) society does not condemn them any longer, and (4) many of the English words are no longer used or understood. If you want to please your Father in heaven, here are some sins you ought to carefully avoid.

When Was Cornelius Saved?
Did Peter save Cornelius? By preaching? Or by baptism? Or did God save Cornelius by free grace in Jesus Christ, and Peter only told him about it? The record of Cornelius in Acts 10 is an inspired account of the first official Gentile conversion. Most today think that eternal life hinges on a decision made for Jesus during the repeated singing of “Just As I Am.” But Peter did not give an invitation, and they did not sing a funeral dirge played on an organ. Cornelius was accepted with God and born again long before meeting Peter. Read about it, and get the Bible order of salvation established in your mind.

Regeneration and Conversion
Do you understand the important difference?

Justification According to the Bible
How sinners are made just and righteous before God is of great importance. Both Arminians and Calvinists claim sinners must believe before God will justify them. We hold that justification is by Jesus Christ alone, just as our Baptist ancestors did in the 1600s. Read this worthy explanation by Samuel Richardson from 1647.

Self-Esteem Is Sick and Sinful
The Bible has all the answers that modern psychiatrists and psychologists keep trying to find, but they never will (II Tim 3:6-7). The Bible condemns self-love and self-esteem as arrogance, pride, self-will, and vanity, among other sins. Bible believers have known this for thousands of years, but recently a few scientists have confessed that the Bible is right after all. We could have saved them a lot of time and expense, but you cannot teach an educated man (Prov 26:12; I Cor 1:19-20; 3:19-20; II Tim 3:6-7).

Why I Believe the Bible
The world is full of competing holy books of various religions, but only one has the inspired words of Jehovah, the true and living God of heaven. The internal proofs for the Bible are more than sufficient to prove it is God’s word to a man with faith. Christianity did not originate and then produce a holy book. Christianity is the religion of an inspired book – the Bible. The Bible came first, and without it we would know nothing about Jesus Christ or His religion.

Is God the author of confusion?
The answer may surprise you! Yes, God will confuse anyone who approaches Him wrongly. And He has written the Bible to confuse most men and reveal the truth to His elect.”

Do you have a word-perfect Bible?
Jesus and the apostles had word-perfect Bibles, and they had never seen or heard of so-called originals. Does your pastor have a word-perfect Bible? If not, how does he preach the truth to you? If not, how do you check his doctrine?

Does God accept contemporary worship?
How can He? He burned Nadab and Abihu and killed Uzzah for slight modifications. He demands worship with reverence and godly fear, for our God is still a consuming fire.“, “Proverb 16:4
Why is there evil? Why do you exist? Why are ostriches so stupid? Why is the universe here? Where did we come from? Get a Masters degree in true philosophy by understanding this glorious Proverb!” ); Stop hiding –>

Is God the author of confusion?
The answer may surprise you! Yes, God will confuse anyone who approaches Him wrongly. And He has written the Bible to confuse most men and reveal the truth to His elect.

Church Discipline How to do what most churches don’t want to do.
Sonship of Christ Do you worship a begotten god like most?
Why I Believe the Bible Detailed evidence that the Bible is true.
Contemporary Christianity Inventions and innovations of today’s churches.

Questions Your Pastor Hopes You Won’t Ask!

In order to serve you for Christ’s sake, we have prepared questions to provoke your study of God’s word. He commanded us to prove all things (I Thess 5:21), and He praised those who search for Bible answers (Acts 17:11). These questions provoked us in the past to seek God’s answers, and we hope they will do the same for you. And if your pastor loves and preaches the truth, we love and pray for him.

When Will Elijah the Prophet Come?

When are the Names Written in the Book of Life?

When was Paul Saved?

Why Did Jesus Speak in Parables?

Was the Great Commission Fulfilled?

Who Killed Goliath in Your Bible?

When Was Cornelius Born Again?

What is the “Baptism for the Dead”?

What is the “word of God” in Hebrews 4:12?

What is the “Abomination of Desolation”?

What to do at the time of Natural Catastrophes

What to do at the time of Natural Catastrophes

Everyone is aware of the devastation caused by the recent earthquake in the Indian Ocean. According to reports over 125,000 people have lost their lives, hundreds of thousands have lost their relatives, entire communities have been wiped out and countless buildings and properties have been destroyed. Over a million people have been left homeless, having lost everything they once owned, now living under open skies with nothing to eat and cover themselves with. And the death toll may rise further as the spread of disease is very likely to occur if adequate assistance is not provided in time.

When such calamities strike, one often ponders over one’s role and responsibility, as a human being and as a Muslim. It is unfortunate that for most of us, it takes such calamities to make us reflect on the Power and lofty Attributes of Allah ta’aalaa. Rather than expressing shallow sorrow and a momentary shock, there are a few points that we need to reflect and act upon, so that events like these can cause us to become better Muslims for the rest of our lives:

1. Allah ta’aalaa is the Hãkim (The Supreme Ruler) and the Hakeem (The Most Wise)
First of all, one has to reaffirm in one’s mind and heart that whatever happens, whether good or bad in appearance, is according to the Wish of Allah ta’aalaa. Allah ta’aalaa is Hãkim i.e. He has Power over everything. Every single particle in the whole universe is under His Control. The turning of the leaf in the air while it is falling from the tree, to the up turning and shaking of the earth itself, as in the case of an earthquake, everything is in His Absolute Control. The commands, wishes and controls of everyone else are subjugated to His Command and Governance. The varied circumstances that one observes or experiences in one’s life are also in His total Control.

There are many incidents and events in a person’s life, during which one hopes for a positive outcome through worldly means e.g. when a relative is seriously ill we can hope for recovery by consulting a specialist, along with our belief that only that will happen which Allah ta’aalaa has ordained. Nevertheless we take the help of worldly means to satisfy ourselves and try to rectify the situation to the best of our ability.
However, when faced with natural disasters like storms, earthquakes and floods, there is no hope of any worldly means which we can employ to circumvent, overcome or prevent re-occurrence of such situations. Such natural disasters are entirely in the Control of Almighty Allah and we are forced to acknowledge that. Indeed as Muslims we should never have disregarded and ignored the Absolute Power of Allah ta’aalaa and it should have been reflected upon in our day to day actions and deeds.
However, it is comforting to know that Allah ta’aalaa is not only the Hãkim (The Supreme Commander) but He is also the Hakeem (The Most Wise). Allah ta’aalaa’s Governance of the universe is unlike that of worldly rulers. His Control and Governance is full of Supreme Wisdom and Divine Justice. Hence even in calamities, such as this earthquake, there is the hidden Wisdom of the Almighty, which may not be apparent to our physical eyes.

2. Turn Towards Allah ta’aalaa in Repentance
Every person, during such times should turn towards Allah ta’aalaa with humbleness, faith and genuine repentance. According to the Sharee‘ah, common and open disobedience of Allah ta’aalaa is one of the many reasons for the cause of calamities like earthquakes. When the land is overloaded with the disobedience of Allah ta’aalaa, earthquakes from beneath and violent storms from above are commonplace. There are quite a few scientific explanations for earthquakes and tsunamis, however the underlying facts point towards ‘how’ they happen and not ‘why’ they happen. The answer to ‘why’ and ‘when’ and even to ‘how’, in reality, remains with Allah ta’aalaa. An answer to ‘why’ has been revealed in the Qur’ãn:

(Corruption and) Mischief has appeared on land and sea because of what the hands of men have earned, that He (Allah) may give them a taste of some of their deeds in order that they may turn back (from evil). (30:41)

Incidents like these are, as it were, ‘wakeup’ alarm calls from Allah ta’aalaa. Allah ta’aalaa in His Infinite Mercy is jolting us through such incidents, so that we may mend our ways and reflect on our transgressions and as a result rectify ourselves before it is too late. Allah ta’aalaa has revealed to his beloved Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam, that as long as this Ummah continues to repent for their wrong-doings, He will not punish them through calamities. Incidents like these should not be viewed with some momentary sympathy or investigated out of curiosity, but treated strictly as a reminder to wake up and reflect on our lives of disobedience. The very Allah who has the Power to cause an earthquake in the watery depths of the Indian Ocean also has the Power to cause any other catastrophe here, in this very city, in the very vicinity of our homes.
Hence it is absolutely essential for Muslims, not just from the affected regions, but from all over the world, to turn towards Allah ta’aalaa. They must direct all their attention towards Him and reflect on their lives to find out where the Commands of Allah ta’aalaa are being violated, then sincerely repent and resolve to adorn their future lives with taqwã, abstain from the disobedience of Allah ta’aalaa, and observe His Commands.

3. Pray for the Afflicted
Our beloved Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam has commanded us to support and help the victims of calamities, whether they be Muslims or otherwise. The best and the most valuable support and help is to make du‘ã i.e. sincere prayers for the wellbeing of the victims. Du‘ã is a very powerful and potent means, which is available to each and every one of us, the one with worldly resources as well as the one without. Hence one should sincerely pray for the well being of the victims. One should pray that Allah ta’aalaa gives them strength, patience and comfort and that He protects and guides them through these critical times and provides rapid recovery from their physical, mental and spiritual wounds. Only Allah ta’aalaa has the ability to provide the things asked for in the above prayers. No amount of worldly means will provide for the loss that has been suffered by the victims.

It is difficult to comprehend or empathise with the situation of the victims. Scores of them have death hovering over their heads while their dead family members lie beside them. Thousands of dead bodies lie in the water piled up like logs unable to receive a proper burial. Thousands of people have lost their sons and daughters and thousands of young children have become orphans. Only prayers will help those people. So take out some time from listening to the news, reading newspaper reports and chatting about the events and bow down to Allah ta’aalaa, and pray sincerely and earnestly (after making repentance) for the victims of the calamity. The victims certainly deserve our prayers, to say the least. It is their right over the entire Muslim community.
It is also worth mentioning that it will be a gross transgression for anyone to forget their own deeds and start judging the victims, claiming their misdeeds to be the reason for the calamity. We are in no position to do that. Besides, this will be tantamount to trying to guess the ‘Hikmah’ (Wisdom) of Allah! Therefore we should refrain from uttering such words.

4. Donate Generously
For people far from the afflicted region, the next best thing that they can do to help and support is to provide financial and material help. The victims have lost everything, their homes and the shelter above their heads, their entire belongings and their livelihoods. There is an immediate need to provide shelter (as a protection from the cold nights), food and clothing. There is also a dire need to provide them with medication and other medical accessories and supply them with clean water and sanitation.
Alhamdulillah, Allah ta’aalaa has given us abundantly, more than we need. We do not have to sacrifice our daily food or clothing in order to donate towards the cause. I request all my brothers and sisters to reflect upon the material blessings that Allah ta’aalaa has bestowed upon us, despite our not being deserving of them, and donate generously for the victims of this calamity. There are people out there, among the victims, who, until yesterday, were the patrons of or contributors towards charities themselves, and had donated profusely. Now, having lost everything, they are in need of charity themselves. Allah ta’aalaa will inshã’allah look favourably upon our generosity and remove future calamities awaiting to befall us. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam has mentioned:

Truly sadaqah extinguishes the Wrath of Allah and saves from an evil death. (Tirmidhi)

So, as human beings, and more so as Muslims, we should not let this suffering continue without providing help and support according to our individual capabilities. Do not wait for your Zakãh to become due to make a donation. The need of the situation demands that we donate everything that is in our possession, even if that means undergoing hardships ourselves. However, since Allah ta’aalaa has blessed us with adequate wealth we know that we can donate sufficiently without having to undergo such troubles. We should spend abundantly and generously, as generously as Allah ta’aalaa has provided for us. Remember, whatever we will spend, we will do so from that which Allah ta’aalaa has given us. It is His Money we will be spending to relieve His Creation. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:

All creatures are the dependants of Allah. The most beloved to Allah from all Creation is he who treats His dependants the best. (Bayhaqi)

Therefore give as much as you can. This is not a time to wait for someone to come and knock at your door. Go out looking for reliable organizations and charities with correct channels, so that your money reaches the genuine victims and fulfills their needs.
May Allah ta’aalaa give us the guidance to learn a lesson from such calamities and grant us the resolve to change our lives for the better. May Allah ta’aalaa also give us the tawfeeq to pray for the victims and to donate generously. Ameen.

by Shaykh Muhammad Saleem Dhorat
Courtesy: Islamic Dawah Academy – UK

First ten days of Zul Hijjah

10nightszulhijjahbig.jpg

When Allah Ta’ala takes an oath upon some aspect, it is to illustrate the great significance of that aspect in the sight of Allah Ta’ala. Among the various things which Allah Ta’ala has taken an oath upon in the Qur’an is “ten nights” (Surah Al-Fajr). Many Mufassireen (commentators) are of the view that this refers to the first ten nights of Zul-Hijjah.

The Ahaadith also mention the virtue of the first ten days of Zul Hijjah. It is reported in one hadith that no action is more beloved to Allah Ta’ala than the action performed in these ten days, whether it be nafil salaah, zikr, charity, etc. (Sahih Bukhari).

REWARD EQUAL TO ONE YEAR

In another Hadith it is reported that one fast in these ten days is equivalent to the reward of fasting for one year (the tenth of Zul-Hijjah is excluded since it is not permissible to fast on the day of Eidul-Adha). Likewise, performing Ibaadah in any of these nights earns the reward of Ibaadah in Lailatul Qadr (Tirmizi).

Furthermore, among these ten days is the day of Arafah (9th Zul-Hijjah). Regarding this day Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is reported to have said: “I have hope in Allah Ta’ala that the fast of the day of Arafah will be an atonement for the (minor) sins of the past and forthcoming year” (Tirmizi). In a narration of Tabraani it is reported that one should in these ten days recite the following excessively: Tasbeeh (Subhanallah), Tahleel (La ilaha illallah), Tahmeed (Al-Hamdulillah) and Takbeer (Allahu Akbar).

DEPRIVATION

Thus the first ten days and nights of Zul-Hijjah are extremely virtuous. One should therefore engage oneself in even more Ibaadah during this time. One should fast on as many of these days as possible. To ignore these virtues and be indifferent to the significance of these days and nights is indeed a great deprivation. It is also a sign of ingratitude to Allah Ta’ala for the great opportunity He has given us to earn tremendously multiplied rewards for little acts of devotion. Hence let us not ignore the gift of Allah Ta’ala. Instead let us take the maximum advantage of this gift.

Related Article: http://www.jamiat.org.za/isinfo/Significance_first_ten_days_Zil_Hijjah.html

Continue reading “First ten days of Zul Hijjah”

Jesus (Isa) A.S. in Islam, and his Second Coming

by Mufti A.H. Elias

I. Jesus (A.S.) In Islam

Muslims do believe that Isa (A.S.) was sent down as a Prophet of Allah (God), but he (Jesus) is not God or Lord, nor the son of God. Muslims do not believe that Isa (A.S.), also known as Jesus by Christians and others, is dead or was ever crucified. We believe that he was raised to heaven and is there, and will descend at the appointed time, end all wars, and bring peace to the world. Like Jesus (A.S.), Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is also a Prophet and Messenger. Muhammed (P.B.U.H.) is the last Prophet, though, and there is none after him. Hence, Islam is the last religion, complete, with the Holy Qur’an as the unchanged and perfect word of God for over 1400 years, as God promised to preserve it till the last day for all of humankind, unlike sacred texts of other religions which have mulitple versions and are “revised” periodically. God, or Allah in Arabic, is Divine and Supreme Being and Creator.

What the Holy Qur’an says about Jesus:

They slew him not, nor did they crucify him but it was made dubious to them.
(Holy Qur’an, Surah Nisaa, Verse 157)

Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) himself told of the coming of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). In the Bible, Jesus (A.S.) says,

If you love me, Keep my commandments. And I will pray to the Father and He shall give you another comforter that he may abide with you forever.
(Bible, John 14-15/16)


But when the comforter has come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the spirit of Truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me, and he also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning.


(Bible, John 15-26/27)

I have yet many things to say unto you, but you cannot bear them now. How be it when he, the spirit of Truth will come, he will guide you into all truth, for he shall speak not of himself, but whatsoever he shall hear, that he shall speak, and he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me, for he shall receive of mine, and he shall show it unto you.
(Bible, John 16-12/14)

Ulema (learned scholars in Islam) have said that the person who is described by Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) to come after him – in the above verse – does not comply with any other person but Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him).

In this case, the “comforter” he mentions is none other than Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and his laws and way of life (Shariah) and Book (Holy Qur’an) are those that Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) asks his followers to abide by.

The “person” whom Jesus (A.S.) prophecised will come after him, is called Pargaleeta in the Bible . This word was deleted by interpreters and translators and changed at times to “Spirit of Truth” and at other times, to “comforter” and sometimes “Holy Spirit.” The original Greek and its meaning is “one whom people praise exceedingly.” The sense of the word, then, is applicable to the word Muhammad in Arabic, since Muhammad means “the praised one.”

Jesus (A.S.) also says in the Bible,

… and a little while and you shall not see me; and again a little while, you shall see me because I go to the Father.
(Bible, John 16:16)

… and the Holy Qur’an says,

And surely they slew him not. But Allah (God) raised him unto Himself.
(Holy Qur’an, Surah Nisaa, Verse 157-158)

As such, Muslims believe that Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) was raised to heaven. According to Hadith, he is on the second heaven. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam=Peace be upon him) mentioned, “During the Meraj (Ascension), I met Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) on the second heaven. I found him of medium stature, reddish white. His body was so clean and clear, that it appeared as though he had just performed ghusal (ablution, cleansing of the entire body) and come.” In another Hadith, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) mentioned to the Jews that, ” Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) is not dead, he will most surely return to you before Qiyamat (the Day of Judgement).”

May Allah Guide all people to the Truth. Aameen.

II. Hadhrat Isa’s (A.S.) Descension The Physical Features of Hadhrat Isa (A.S.)

He will resemble the famous Sahabi (A.S.) Hadhrat Urwa bin Masoodi (R.A.). He will be of average height and red and white in colour. His hair spread to the shoulders, straight, neat and shining as after a bath. On bending his head, it will seem as if pearls are falling. He will have an armour on his body. He will be wearing two pieces of cloth light yellow in color.

his Descension

He will descend on a Jamaat (group) that will be righteous at the time and comprising of 800 men and 400 women. The people will be preparing for war at the time against Dajjal (the anti-Christ). It will be time for Fajr prayers, and Imam Mahdi will be the Amir (leader). From the darkness of the dawn, a sound will suddenly be heard that “one who listens to your pleas has come” — the righteous people will look everywhere and their eyes will fall on Isa (A.S.). Briefly, at the time of Fajr, Isa (A.S.) will descend. When descending, Isa (A.S.)’s hands will be on the shoulders of two angels (according to another source (Kab Abrar), a cloud will carry him). On their insistence Hadhrat Isa will introduce himself. He will inquire about their enthusiasm and thoughts on Jihad against Dajjal. Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will descend on the eastern side near the Minaret in Damascus (or in Baitul-Muqaddus by Imam Mahdi). At the time Imam Mahdi will have proceeded forward to lead the Fajr Salaat. The Iqamat of the Salaat would have been said (already recited) and Imam Mahdi will call Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) for Imamat (to lead the prayer), but he (Hadhrat Isa (A.S.)) will instead tell Imam Mahdi to lead the prayer since the Iqamat of that Salaat has already been said for him. Thus Imam Mahdi will lead the prayer, and Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will follow him. After the ruku, he will make this statement: “Allah has killed Dajjal and the Muslims have appeared.”

The Killing of Dajjal (anti-Christ) and the Victory of the Muslims

After the completion of Fajr Salaat (congregational dawn prayers), Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will open the door behind him where Dajjal accompanied by 70,000 Yahudis (Jews) will be. He will indicate with his hand to move away between him (Hadhrat Isa (A.S.)) and Dajjal. Dajjal will then see Hadhrat Isa (A.S.). At that time every Kafir on whom the breath of Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will reach, will die. His breath will reach up to the distance of his eyesight. The Muslims will then come down from the mountains and break loose on the army of Dajjal. There will be war, Dajjal will retreat, and Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will pursue Dajjal. Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will have two flexible swords and one shield with him and with these he will kill Dajjal at the Gate of Hudd. He willl show the Muslims the blood of Dajjal which will get on his shield. Eventually the Yahudis will be selected and killed. The swine will be killed and the cross broken. People will revert to Islam. Wars will end, and people will return to their respective countries. One Jamaat (group) of Muslims will remain in his service and companionship.

Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will go to Fajr Rawha and perform Haj or Umrah (or both) from there. He will also go to the grave of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and present his greetings and Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) will reply. People will live comfortable lives. The wall of Yajooj and Majooj (Gog and Magog) will then break.

III. The Blessings of Hadhrat Isa (Jesus) (A.S.)

1 Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will descend and stay on earth.
2 His descension will be in the last era of the Ummat.
3 He will be a just ruler and a fair judge.
4 His ummat will be the Khalifa (deputies) of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam).
5 He will act himself and instruct others on the Qur’an and Hadith (Shariat/Tradition of Islam).
6 He will lead people in Salaat (Prayer).
7 He will stay on earth for a period of 40 years after descending. The will be the best era of the Ummat after the first era of Islam.
8 Allah will protect his companions from Jahannam.
9 Those who will save the Deen of Islam by associating themselves with Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will be amongst the most loved by Allah Ta’ala.
10 During this period all other religions and mazhabs besides Islam will perish, hence there will be no kuffaars (non-believers) in the world.
11 Jihad will be stopped.
12 No Khiraaj will be taken.
13 Nor Jizya (protection tax) money from the kafirs (non-believers) in Islamic lands.
14 Wealth and property will be in surplus to such an extent that there will be no one to accept the wealth of the other (everyone will be independent).
15 Receiving Zakaat (Alms-giving, Charity to poor) and Saadaqa will be discarded (as there will be no poor to receive them!).
16 The people will love the sajda (prostration to God) more than the world and what it consists of.
17 All types of Deeni (religious) and worldly blessings will descend on earth (many halaal (lawful) things will be created).
18 There will be peace, harmony and tranquility during the time of Hadhrat Isa (A.S.)’s stay in the world.
19 There will be no animosity for a period of seven years, even between two persons.
20 All hearts will be free from miserliness, envy, hatred, malice and jealousy.
21 For a period of forty years no one will fall ill or die.
22 Venom will be taken out of all venomous animals.
23 Snakes and scorpions will not harm anyone to the extent that if a child put his hand in its mouth, he will not be harmed.
24 Wild animals will not harm anyone.
25 If a man will pass a lion, he will not be troubled or harmed, or even if any girl will open its mouth to test if it will do anything.
26 The camels will graze among lions, cheetahs with cattle and the jackals with goats.
27 The fertility of the land will increase to such an extent that even if a seed is planted in a hard rock, it will sprout.
28 A pomegranate will be so huge that a jamaat will be able to eat it and the people will use its peel as shade.
29 There will be so much barakaat (blessing) in milk that a camel will suffice for a huge jamaat, a cow for a tribe and a goat for a family.
30 In short, life will be most pleasant after the descension of Jesus (A.S.).

His Marriage, Death and Deputies

After his descension on earth, Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will marry. He will have children, and he will remain on earth 19 years after marriage. He will pass away and Muslims will perform his Janaza Salaat and bury him net to Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). (Tirmidhi)

from: Hadhrat Esa (Alaihis Salaam): The Truth Revealed
and Major Signs of Qiyamat
by Mufti Afzal Hoosein Elias (May Allah reward him for his work in producing these kitaabs, aameen.)
from the original (with references): “Aalalaat-e-Qiyyamat aur Nuzul-e-Eesa.”

WEAK, FABRICATED, REJECTED & FALSE AHAADEETH

WEAK, FABRICATED, REJECTED & FALSE AHAADEETH

Analysis of the narrators and chains of narration of some commonly Quoted Da’eef (Weak), Munkar (Rejected), False (Baatil), fabricated (Mawdoo) and Laa Asla Lahu (Baseless) ahaadeeth. It is important to note that there are numerous unfounded narrations that are declared Da’eef, Munkar, Baatil, Mawdoo or Baseless ahaadeeth. They are popular and are commonly circulated among all levels of society – the elite as well as the commoners.  As such, it is our obligation to discuss them and indicate their erroneousness

He who recites (Surah Fatihah) behind the Imaam, his mouth is filled with fire…………
He who raises his hands during the prayer, there is no prayer for him…….
There will be a man among my ummah known as Abu Haneefah, who will be the lamp of my ummah……
The Hadeeth Endorsing Ikhtilaaf disagreement differing…………
My Companions are like the stars: whichever of them you follow, you will be rightly-guided…..
Disagreement will occur at the death of a Khaleef and a Man of the People of Madeenah will come forth……
We have returned from the Lesser Jihaad, to the Greater Jihaad (i.e. the Jihaad against oneself…
Seek knowledge even if it be to China ……for indeed seeking knowledge is an obligatory duty upon all…
Love of ones homeland is part of faith…..
Allaah says, ‘neither My Heaven or My earth can contain Me……..
The One who knows himself, knows his Lord……
I was a Prophet while Adam was between clay and water….
I was a hidden treasure, and I wished to be known, so I Created (Human Being)…..
“Allaah says, ‘were it not for you (O Muhammad ) I would not have created the universe.’”
The Ahaadeeth on the Abdaal (The Substitutes)
“The Example of my Companions is that of the stars: he who follows any of them will be rightly-guided.” 
If there is no previous example (sunnah) of mine, then (act upon) what my Companions say…….
“I asked my Lord about that which my Companions would disagree about after me, so Allaah inspired me: 
“Verily, my Companions are like the stars: so if you accept any of their sayings, you will be guided.”
Wiping the Face with the Hands After Du`aa’ (Supplication)……
“When  he raised his hands in Du’aa’, he would not put them down until he had wiped his face with them.” 
Whoever visits me after I die, it is as if he visited me when I was still alive…
KISSING THE FINGERS…………………..
KISSING THE THUMBS IN ADHAAN………
EATING FROM THE DECEASED’S HOUSE
You will indeed battle the Mushrikeen until the last of you fight the Dajjaal at a river in Jordan
If I am someone’s mawla (friend) then ‘Ali is his mawla too”
The weakness of the hadeeth about placing the hands below the navel.
“Whoever sleeps after ‘Asr and loses his mind has no one to blame except himself”?
“I am a tree, ‘Ali is its trunk, Faatimah is its branches and al-Hasan and al-Husayn are its fruits.”
“Learn Witchcraft (Sihr), But do not use it”?
The Story of ‘Umar Being Corrected by a Woman

The Path of Ahl As-Sunnah Wal-Jama’ah and Brotherhood Among Muslims

The Path of Ahl As-Sunnah Wal-Jama’ah and Brotherhood Among Muslims

 

[Excerpt from the book ‘Aqeedatu Waasitiyah’ (Creed of the Middle Path) by Ibn Taymiyyah]

 

The path of the people of the Sunnah and the Jama’ah is following the Prophet’s Tradition both inwardly and outwardly, and following the foot- steps of the early Muslims, both the Muhajirun (Emigrants) and the Ansar (Helpers), and following the Prophet’s recommendation: “Hold on to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Caliphs after me. Hold on to it firmly. And beware of heretical innovations (Bid’ah) because each heretical innovation (Bid’ah) is a falsehood and each false- hood is a deviation from the right path.” (Reported by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi who said it is a good and sound hadith, and Ibn Majah)

 

The people of the Sunnah know that the most truthful words are Allah’s Words over the words of all people, and they put the guidance of Muhammad (peace be upon him) ahead of the guidance of all people. Because of all this they are called the People of the Book and the Sunnah. They are called the People of the Community because community means unity and its opposite is disunity.

 

The term Jama’ah became a name for the unified people themselves and al-Ijma’ (consensus) is the third pillar on which people depend for ‘ilm (knowledge) and din (faith).

By these three pillars (Qur’an, Sunnah, and Ijma’) is measured all that people follow of inward or outward words and acts which have any relation to din (faith) and to the controlled ijma’ of the righteous ancestors since after them the disagreement increased, and the ‘Ummah dispersed.

 

Brotherhood Among Muslims Continue reading “The Path of Ahl As-Sunnah Wal-Jama’ah and Brotherhood Among Muslims”

THE CATEGORIES OF TAWHEED

Literally Tawheed means “unification” (making something one) or “asserting oneness”, and it comes from the Arabic verb (wahhada) which itself means to unite, unify or consolidate.1 However, when the term Tawheed is used in reference to Allaah (i.e. Tawheedullaah2), it means the realizing and maintaining of Allaah’s unity in all of man’s actions which directly or indirectly relate to Him. It is the belief that Allaah is One, without partner in His dominion and His actions (Ruboobeeyah), One without similitude in His essence and attributes (Asmaa wa Sifaat), and One without rival in His divinity and in worship (Ulooheeyah ‘Ebaadah). These three aspects form the basis for the categories into which the science of Tawheed has been traditionally divided. The three overlap and are inseparable to such a degree that whoever omits any one aspect has failed to complete the requirements of Tawheed. The omission of any of the above mentioned aspects of Tawheed is referred to as “Shirk” (lit. sharing); the association of partners with Allaah, which, in Islamic terms, is in fact idolatry.

The three categories of Tawheed are commonly referred to by the following titles:

1. Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah (lit. “Maintaining the Unity of Lordship”)

2. Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat (lit. “Maintaining the Unity of Allaah’s Names and Attributes”)

3. Tawheed al-‘Ebaadah (lit. “Maintaining the Unity of Allaah’s Worship”)3

The division of Tawheed into its components was not done by the Prophet (saws) nor by his companions, as there was no necessity to analyze such a basic principle of faith in this fashion. However, the foundations of the components are all implied in the verses of the Qur’aan and in the explanatory statements of the Prophet (saws) and his companions, as will became evident to the reader when each category is dealt with in more detail later in this Page.

The necessity for this analytical approach to the principle of Tawheed arose after Islaam spread into Egypt, Byzantium, Persia and India and absorbed the cultures of these regions. It is only natural to expect that when the peoples of these lands entered the fold of Islaam, they would carry with them some of the remnants of their former beliefs. When some of these new converts began to express in writings and discussions, their various philosophical concepts of God, confusion arose in which the pure and simple Unitarian belief of Islaam became threatened. There were also others who had outwardly accepted Islaam but secretly worked to destroy the religion from within, due to their inability to oppose it militarily. This group began to actively propagate distorted ideas about Allaah among the masses in order to tear down the first pillar of Eemaan (faith) and with it Islaam itself.

According to Muslim historians, the first Muslim to express the position of man’s free-will and the absence of destiny (Qadar) was an Iraqi convert from Christianity by the name of Sausan. Sausan later reverted to Christianity but not before infecting his student, Ma’bad ibn Khaalid al-Juhanee from Basrah. Ma’bad spread the teachings of his master until he was caught and executed by the Umayyad Caliph, ‘Abdul-Malik ibn Marwaan (685-705), in the year 700 CE.4 

The younger Sahaabah (companions of the Prophet (saws)) who were alive during this period, like ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar (d. 694 CE) and ‘Abdullaah in Abee Awfaa (d. 705CE), advised the people not to greet those who denied destiny nor make funeral prayers for those of them who died. That is, they considered them to be disbelievers.5 However, Christian philosophical arguments for free-will continued to find new supporters. Ghailaan ibn Muslim from Damascus studied under Ma’bad and championed the cause of free-will until he was brought before Caliph ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul-‘Azeez (717-720CE). He recanted his beliefs publicly, however, [and] on the caliph’s death, he resumed teaching free-will. The following caliph, Hishaam ibn ‘Abdul-Malik (724-743CE), had him arrested, tried and executed.6 Another prominent figure in this controversy was al-Ja’d ibn Dirham, who not only supported the philosophy of free-will, but also attempted to re-interpret the Qur’ânic verses containing descriptions of Allaah’s qualities according to neo-platonic philosophy. Al-Ja’d was at one point a tutor for the Umayyad prince, Marwaan ibn Muhammad, who later became the fourteenth caliph (744-750CE). During his lectures in Damascus, he openly denied some of Allaah’s attributes, like seeing, hearing etc., until the Umayyad governor expelled him.7 He then fled to Kufah, where he continued to propound his ideas and gather followers until his heretical opinions became widely publicized and the Umayyad governor, Khaalid ibn Abdillaah, had him publicly executed in 736 CE. However, his main disciple, Jahm ibn Safwaan, continued to defend his master’s doctrines in philosophical circles in Tirmiz and Balakh, when his heresies became widespread, he was executed by the Umayyad governor, Nasr ibn Sayyaar, in 743CE.8

The early caliphs and their governors were closer to Islamic principles and the consciousness of the masses was higher due to the presence of the Prophet’s companions and their students. Hence, the demand for the elimination of open heretics received immediate response from the rulers. In contrast, the later Umayyad caliphs were more corrupt and as such cared little about such religious issues. The masses were also less Islamically conscious and thus were more susceptible to deviant ideas. As greater numbers of people entered Islaam, and the learning of an increasing number of conquered nations was absorbed, the execution of apostates was no longer used to stem the rising tide of heresy. The task of opposing the tide of heresy fell on the shoulders of the Muslim scholars of this period who rose to meet the challenge intellectually. They systematically opposed the various alien philosophies and creeds by categorizing them and countering them with principles deduced from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah. It was out of this defense that the Science of Tawheed emerged with its precisely defined categories and components. This process of specialization occurred simultaneously in all of the other areas of Islamic knowledge as it has done in the various secular sciences of today. Therefore, as the categories of Tawheed are studied separately and in more depth, it must not be forgotten that they are all a part of an organic whole which is itself the foundation of a greater whole, Islaam itself.

Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah (Maintaining the Unity of Lordship)

This category is based on the fundamental concept that Allaah alone caused all things to exist when there was nothing; He sustains and maintains creation without any need from it or for it; and He is the sole Lord of the universe and its inhabitants without any real challenge to His sovereignty. In Arabic the word used to describe this creator-sustainer quality is Ruboobeeyah which is derived from the root “Rabb” (Lord). According to this category, since God is the only real power in existence, it is He who gave all things the power to move and to change. Nothing happens in creation except what He allows to happen. In recognition of this reality, Prophet Muhammad (saws) used to often repeat the exclamatory phrase “La hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaah” (There is no movement nor power except by Allaah’s will).

The basis for the Ruboobeeyah concept can be found in many Qur’ânic verses. For example, Allaah says:

“Allaah created all things and He Is the agent on which all things depend.”9

“And Allaah created you all and whatever you do.”10

“It was not you who threw, when you threw, but it was Allaah who threw.”11

“And no calamity strikes except by Allaah’s permission.”12

The Prophet (saws) further elaborated on this concept saying, “Be aware that if the whole of mankind gathered together in order to do something to help you, they would only be able to do something for you which Allaah had already written for you. Likewise, if the whole of mankind gathered together to harm you, they would only be able to do something to harm you which Allaah had already written to happen to you”13

Thus, what man conceives as good fortune and misfortune are merely events predestined by Allaah as part of the tests of this life. The incidents follow patterns set only by Allaah. Allaah has said in the Qur’aan,

“O Believers! Surely there Is In your wives and children an enemy for you, so beware of them.”14

That is, within the good things of this life there are severe tests of one’s faith in God. Likewise, in the terrible events of life there lies test as is mentioned in the verse,

“Surely We will test you with fear, hunger, loss of wealth and life and the fruits of your work, so give glad tidings to those who are patient.”15

Sometimes the patterns are recognizable, as in the case of cause and effect relationships, and sometimes they are not, as in the case when apparently good results come from evil means or bad results from good means. God has explained that the wisdom behind these apparent irregularities is often beyond man’s immediate comprehension due to his limited scope of knowledge.

“Perhaps you may dislike something which is really good for you or like something bad for you, but Allaah knows (what is best for you), and you do not.”16

Apparently evil events in human lives sometimes turn out to be for the best and apparently good things which people desire turn out to be harmful. Consequently, man’s realm of influence in the course of events which make up his life is limited to the mental choice between options presented to him and not the actual results of his choice. In other words “man proposes and God disposes”. Apparent “good fortune” and “misfortune” are both from Allaah and can not be caused by good-luck charms such as rabbit’s feet, four-leaf clovers, wishbones, lucky numbers, zodiacal signs, etc., or by omens of bad luck like Friday the thirteenth, breaking mirrors, black cats, etc. 

In fact, the belief in charms and omens is a manifestation of the grave sin of Shirk (association) in this form of Tawheed. ‘Uqbah, one of the companions of the Prophet (saws), reported that once a group of men approached Allaah’s messenger to give their allegiance to him, and he accepted the oath from nine of them but refused to accept it from one. When they asked him why he refused their companion’s oath, he replied, “Verily, he is wearing an amulet”17 The man who was wearing the amulet put his hand in his cloak, pulled the amulet off and broke it then made the oath. The Prophet (saws) then said, “Whoever wears an amulet has committed Shirk.”18

As for using the Qur’aan like a charm or amulet by wearing or carrying Qur’ânic verses on chains or in pouches to ward off evil or to bring good fortune, there is little difference between such practices and those of the pagans. Neither the Prophet (saws) nor his Companions used the Qur’aan in this fashion, and the Prophet (saws) said, “Whoever innovates in Islaam something which does not belong to it will have it rejected.” 19 

It is true that the Qur’ânic chapters, an-Naas and al-Falaq, were revealed specifically for exorcism (that is, for removing evil spells), but the Prophet (saws) demonstrated the proper method by which they should be used. On an occasion when a spell had been cast on him, he told ‘Alee ibn Abee Taalib to recite the two chapters verse by verse and when he became ill he used to recite them on himself.20 He did not write them down and hang them around his neck, tie them on his arm or around his waist, nor did he tell others to do so.

Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat (Maintaining the Unity of Allaah’s Names and Attributes).

This category of Tawheed has five main aspects:

1. For the unity of Allaah’s names and attributes to be maintained in the first aspect, Allaah must be referred to according to how He and His Prophet (saws) have described Him without explaining away His names and attributes by giving them meanings other than their obvious meanings. For example, Allaah in the Qur’aan says He gets angry with the disbelievers and the hypocrites. He says:

“That He may punish the hypocrites, men and women, and the pagans men and women, who have an evil opinion of Allaah. A circle of evil is around them; Allaah is angry with them, curses them and has prepared for them an evil end.”21

Thus, anger is one of God’s attributes. It is incorrect to say that His anger must mean His punishment since anger is a sign of weakness in man and, as such, not befitting of Allaah. What Allaah has stated should be accepted with the qualification that His anger is not like human anger, based on Allaah’s statement, “There is nothing like him”.22 The process of so-called “rational” interpretation when taken to its logical conclusion results in the denial of God’s very existence. For, Allaah describes Himself as living and man lives, therefore, according to the rationalist argument, God is neither living nor existing. The fact is that the similarity between God’s attributes and those of mankind is only in name and not in degree. When attributes are used in reference to God, they are to be taken in the absolute sense, free from human deficiencies.

2. The second aspect of Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat involves referring to Allaah as He has referred to Himself without giving Him any new names or attributes. For example, Allaah may not be given the name al-Ghaadib (the Angry one), in spite of the fact that He has said that He gets angry, because neither Allaah nor His messenger has used this name. This may seem to be a very fine point, but it must be maintained in order to prevent the false description of God. That is, finite man is in no position to define the infinite Lord of creation.

3. In the third aspect of Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat Allaah is referred to without giving Him the attributes of His creation. For example, it is claimed in the Bible and Torah that Allaah spent the first six days creating the universe then slept on the seventh.23 For this reason, Jews and Christians take either Saturday or Sunday as a day of rest in which work is looked at as a sin. Such a claim assigns to God the attributes of His creation. It is man who tires after heavy work and needs sleep to recuperate.24 Elsewhere in the Bible and Torah, God is portrayed as repenting for His bad thoughts in the same way that humans do when they realize their errors.25 Similarly the claim that God is a spirit or has a spirit completely ruins this area of Tawheed. Allaah does not refer to Himself as a spirit anywhere in the Qur’aan nor does His Prophet (saws) express anything of that nature in Hadeeth. In fact, Allaah refers to the spirit as part of His creation.26

The key principle which should be followed when dealing with Allaah’s attributes is the Qur’ânic formula,

“There is nothing like Him and He is hearer and seer of all.”27

The attributes of hearing and seeing are among human attributes, but when they are attributed to The Divine Being they are without comparison in their perfection. However, when these attributes are associated with men they necessitate ear and eye apparatuses which can not be attributed to God. What man knows about the Creator is only what little He has revealed to him through His prophets. Therefore, man is obliged to stay within these narrow limits. When man gives free rein to his intellect in describing God, he is liable to fall into errors by assigning to Allaah the attributes of His creation.

In their love of pictorial representations, Christians have painted, carved and molded innumerable human likenesses and called them images of God. These have served to pave the way for the acceptance of Jesus’ divinity among the masses. Once they accepted the conception of the Creator as being like a human being, accepting Jesus as God presented no real problem.

4. The fourth aspect of Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat requires that man not be given the attributes of Allaah. For example, in the New Testament Paul takes the figure of Melchizedek, king of Salem, from the Torah (Genesis 14:18-20) and gives both him and Jesus the divine attribute of having no beginning or end,

“1 For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him,2 and to him Abraham apportioned a tenth part of everything. He is first, by translation of his name, king of righteousness, and then he is also king of Salem, that is, king of peace.3 He is without father or mother or genealogy, and has neither beginning of days nor end of life, but resembling the son of God he continues a priest forever.28

“5 So also Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him, ‘Thou art my son, today I have begotten thee’; 6 as he says also in another place, ‘Thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchizedek’.29

Most Shi’ite sects (with the exception of the Zaidites of Yemen) have given their “Imaams” divine attributes of absolute infallibility,30 knowledge of the past, the future and the unseen, the ability to change destiny31 and control over the atoms of creation.32 In so doing they set up rivals who share God’s unique attributes and who, in fact, become gods besides Allaah.

5. Maintaining the unity of Allaah’s names also means that Allaah’s names in the definite form cannot be given to His creation unless preceded by the prefix ‘Abd meaning “slave of” or “servant of’. Many of the Divine names in their indefinite form like Ra’oof and Raheem are allowable names for men because Allaah has used some of them in their indefinite forms to refer to the Prophet (saws):

“A messenger has come to you from among yourselves to whom anything which burdens you is grievous. He is full of concern for you and is full of pity (Ra'oof) and full of mercy (Raheem)”. 33

But Ar-Ra’oof (the One Most Full of Pity) and Ar-Raheem (the Most Merciful) can only be used to refer to men if they are preceded by ‘Abd as in ‘Abdur-Ra’oof or ‘Abdur-Raheem, since in the definite form they represent a level of perfection which only belongs to God. Similarly, names like ‘Abdur-Rasool (slave of the messenger), ‘Abdun-Nabee (slave of the Prophet), ‘Abdul-Husayn (slave of Husayn), etc., where people name themselves slaves to other than Allaah are also forbidden. Based on this principle, the Prophet (saws) forbade Muslims from referring to those put under their charge as ‘Abdee (my slave) or Amatee (my slave girl).34

Tawheed al-‘Ebaadah (Maintaining The Unity of Worship)

In spite of the wide implications of the first two categories of Tawheed, firm belief in them alone is not sufficient to fulfill the Islamic requirements of Tawheed. Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah and Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat must be accompanied by their complement, Tawheed al-‘Ebaadah, in order for Tawheed to be considered complete according to Islaam. This point is substantiated by the fact that Allaah Himself has related in clear terms that the Mushrikoon (idolators) of the Prophet’s time confirmed many aspects of the first two forms of Tawheed. In the Qur’aan Allaah tells the Prophet (saws) to say to the pagans:

“Say: ‘Who is it that gives you all sustenance from the sky and earth, governs sight and hearing, brings forth life from dead (matter) and death from the living, and plans the affairs of man?’ They will all say ‘Allaah’.”35

“If you asked them who created them, they would surely say, ‘Allaah’ “36

“If you asked them who brings down water from the sky and with it brings the earth to life after its death? They will most certainly say, ‘Allaah’.” 37

The pagan Makkans all knew that Allaah was their creator, sustainer, their Lord and Master yet that knowledge did not make them Muslims according to God. In fact, Allaah said:

“Most of them do not believe in Allaah except while joining partners to Him.”38

Mujaahid’s39 commentary on this verse was as follows: “Their belief in Allaah represented by their statement, ‘Allaah created us, provides for us and takes our lives’, did not stop them from worshipping other gods along with Allaah.”40 From the previously mentioned verses, it is clear that the Kuffaar (disbelievers) knew of Allaah’s sovereignty, dominion and power. In fact, they used to faithfully devote various types of worship to Him like Hajj, charity, animal sacrifices, vows and even prayers in times of dire necessity and calamity. They even used to claim that they were following the religion of Abraham. Because of that claim, Allaah revealed the verse:

“Abraham was not a Jew nor was he a Christian, but (he) was a true Muslim and not among those who joined partners with Allaah.”41

Some pagan Makkans even believed in the Resurrection and the Judgement and others in predestination (Qadar). Ample evidence of their belief can be found in pre-Islamic poetry. For example, the poet Zuhayr was reported to have said:

“It is either delayed, placed in a book and saved for the Day of Judgement or hastened and avenged.”

‘Antarah was quoted as saying:

“O ‘Ebil to where will you run from death, if my Lord in the sky has destined it?”42

In spite of the Makkans’ confessions of Tawheed and their knowledge of Allaah, Allaah classified them as disbelievers (Kuffaar) and pagans (Mushrikoon) simply because they worshipped other gods along with their worship of Allaah.

Consequently, the most important aspect of Tawheed is that of Tawheed al-‘Ebaadah, maintaining the unity of Allaah’s worship. All forms of worship must be directed only to Allaah because He alone deserves worship, and it is He alone who can grant benefit to man as a result of His worship. Furthermore, there is no need for any form of intercessor or intermediary between man and God. Allaah emphasized the importance of directing worship to Him alone by pointing out that this was the main purpose of man’s creation and the essence of the message brought by all the prophets. Allaah says:

“I did not create the Jinn and Mankind except for My worship.”43

“Verily, We have sent to every nation a messenger (saying), ‘Worship Allaah and avoid false gods’.”44

Understanding the purpose of creation in a complete sense is beyond man’s innate abilities. Man is a finite created being and can not reasonably hope to fully comprehend the actions of the infinite Creator. Hence, God made it a part of man’s nature to worship Him, and He sent prophets and books of divine revelation to clarify the aspect of the purpose of creation which was within man’s mental ability to grasp. That purpose is, as was previously mentioned: the worship of God (‘Ebaadah) and the main message of the prophets was to worship God alone, Tawheed al-‘Ebaadah. Consequently, the gravest sin is Shirk, the worship of others instead of Allaah or along with Allaah. In Soorah al-Faatihah, which every Muslim is required to recite in his or her prayers at least seventeen times daily, verse four reads, “You alone do we worship and from You alone do we seek help”. A clear statement that all forms of worship should only be directed to the One who can respond, Allaah. The Prophet Muhammad (saws) confirmed the concept of unity of worship saying, “If you ask in prayer ask only Allaah, and if you seek help, seek it only from Allaah.”45 The absence of any need for intercession is further emphasized by the many verses indicating His closeness to man. For example:

“When My servants ask you (O Muhammad) about Me (tell them), ‘Verily I am close (to them), I listen to the prayer of every one who calls on Me. So let them respond to Me and believe In Me in order that they may he guided aright.”46

“It is We who created man and We know what his soul whispers to him, for We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.”47

The confirmation of Tawheed al-‘Ebaadah conversely necessitates the denial of all forms of intercession or association of partners with Allaah. If someone prays to the dead seeking their influence on the lives of the living or the souls of those who have passed away, they have associated a partner with Allaah, because worship is being shared between Allaah and His creation. The Prophet Muhammad (saws) said, in no uncertain terms, “Prayer (du’aa) is worship.”48 And, Allaah, Most Great and Glorious, said:

‘Do not worship besides Allaah that which can not help or harm you.”49

“Those on whom you call besides Allaah are only slaves like yourselves.”50

If someone prays to the Prophet (saws), to so-called saints, Jinns or angels asking for help or asking them to request help from Allaah for them, they have also committed Shirk. The concept of “Ghaus-i-Azam” (al-Ghawth al-A’dHam), a title given by the ignorant to ‘Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee,51 is also an expression of Shirk in this form of Tawheed. The title literally means “the greatest source of rescue; the one most able to save someone from danger” and such a description only belongs to Allaah. When misfortune occurs, some people call on ‘Abdul-Qaadir by this title seeking his aid and protection even though Allaah has already said:

“If Allaah allows harm to befall you none can. remove it except Him.” 52

According to the Qur’aan, when the Makkans were questioned about directing their prayers to their idols, they answered,

“We only worship them so that they may bring us closer to Allaah.”53

The idols were only used as intermediaries yet Allaah called them pagans for their practice. Those among Muslims who insist on praying to other than Allaah would do well to reflect on this fact.

Christians, influenced by the teachings of Saul from Tarsus (later called Paul), deified Prophet Jesus and directed their prayer to him and his mother. The Catholics among Christians have saints for every occasion to whom they direct their prayers in the belief that these saints can directly influence the affairs of this world. The Catholics also use their priests as intercessors between themselves and Allaah in the mistaken belief that the priests are closer to Allaah due to their celibacy and piety, and thus more likely to be listened to by Allaah. Most Shi’ite sects have devoted certain days of the week and hours of the day for prayer to ‘Alee, Faatimah, Hasan and Husayn54 due to their distorted belief in intercession.

Worship (‘Ebaadah) in the Islamic view, includes more than just fasting, paying Zakaah, Hajj and animal sacrifices. It includes emotions like love, trust, and fear, all of which have degrees which should only be directed to God. Allaah has addressed these emotions and warned against excesses in them as follows:

“There are among men those who take (for worship) others besides Allaah as equals to Him. They love them as they should only love Allaah. But those who believe have a much greater love of Allaah…”55

“Will you not fight people who broke their oaths, plotted to expel the messenger and were the first to (attack) you? Do you fear them? Allaah has more right to be feared if you are truly believers.”56

“Put your trust in Allaah if you are truly believers.”57

Since the term ‘Ebaadah means total obedience and Allaah is considered the ultimate Lawgiver, the implementation of secular legal systems not based on divine law (Sharee’ah) is an act of disbelief in the divine law and belief in the correctness of such systems, such a belief constitutes a form of worshipping other than Allaah (Shirk). Allaah said in the Qur’aan:

“Those who do not rule by what Allaah has revealed are disbelievers (Kaafiroon). “58

On one occasion, the Prophet’s companion ‘Adee ibn Haatim, who was a convert from Christianity, heard the Prophet (saws) recite the Qur’ânic verse, “They have taken their rabbis and monks as lords besides Allaah,”59 so he said: ‘Surely we did not worship them,’ The Prophet (saws) turned to him and said ‘Did they not make forbidden (Haraam) what Allaah had made allowable (Halaal)60, and you all made it Haraam, and did they not make Halaal what Allaah made Haraam61 and you all made it Halaal?’ He replied, ‘We certainly did.’ The Prophet (saws) then said, ‘That was how you worshipped them’.”62

Hence, a significant part of Tawheed al-‘Ebaadah involves the implementation of Sharee’ah, especially in lands where Muslims form the majority of the population. Divine law has to be re-introduced in the many so-called Muslim countries where governments now rule according to imported capitalist or communist constitutions, and Islamic law is either totally extinct or relegated to a few areas of minor importance. Likewise, Muslim countries, where Islamic law is on the books but secular laws are in force, have also to be brought in line with the Sharee’ah as it pertains to all aspects of life. The acceptance of non-Islamic rule in place of Sharee’ah in Muslim lands is Shirk and an act of Kufr. Those in a position to change it must do so, while those unable to do so must speak out against the rule of Kufr and call for the implementation of Sharee’ah. If even this becomes impossible, un-Islamic government must be sincerely hated and despised for the pleasure of God and the upholding of Tawheed.

Footnotes (1)

1 J.M. Cowan, The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, (Spoken Language Services Inc., New York, 3rd. ed., 1976), p.1055.

2 The word Tawheed does not actually occur the Qur’aan However, when the Prophet (saws) sent Mu’aadh ibn Jabal as governor of Yemen in 9AH, he told him, “You will be going to Christians and Jews (ahl al-Kitaab), so the first thing you should invite them to is the assertion of the oneness of Allaah (Yuwahhidoo Allaah).” (Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbaas and collected by al-Bukhaaree (Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Sahih Al-Bukhari, (Arabic-English), (Riyadh: Maktabah ar-Riyaad al-Hadeethah, 1981), vol.9, pp. 348-9, no.469) and Muslim (Abdul Hamid Siddiq, Sahih Muslim (English Trans.), (Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers, 1987), vol.1, pp.14-5, no.27). In this Hadeeth the present tense of the verb from which the verbal noun Tawheed is derived was used by the Prophet (saws).

3 Ibn Abil-‘Ezz al-Hanafee, Sharh al-‘Aqeedah at-Tahaaweeyah, p.78.

4 Ibn Hajar, Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb, (Hydrabad, 1325-7)vol. 10, p.225.

5 ‘Abdul-Qaahir ibn Taahir aI-Baghdaadee, Al-Farq bain al-Firaq, (Beirut: Daar al-Ma’rifah), pp.19-20.

6 Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Kareem ash-Shahrastaanee, Al-Milal wan-Nihal, (Beirut: Daar al-Ma’rifah, 2nd ed., 1975), vol.1, p.30.

7 Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ar-Radd ‘alaa al-Jahmeeyah, (Riyadh: Daar al-Liwaa, 1st ed., 1977), pp.41-43.

8 Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Kareem ash-Sharastaanee, Al-Milal wan-Nihal, vol.1, p.46.

9 Soorah az-Zumar 39:62.

10 Soorah as-Saafaat 37:96.

11 Soorah al-Anfaal 8:17. This was in reference to a miraculous incident which took place when the Prophet (saws) gathered some dust in his hand and threw it at the enemy (at the beginning of the Battle of Badr). Allaah caused the dust to reach the faces of the enemy in spite of their great distance.

12 Soorah at-Taghaabun 64:11.

13 Reported by Ibn ‘Abbaas and collected by at-Tirmidhee. See Ezzeddin Ibrahim and Denys Johnson – Davies, An-Nawawi’s Forty Hadith, (English Trans.), (Damascus, Syria: The Holy Koran Publishing House, 1976), p.68, no.19.

14 Soorah at-Taghanbun 64:14.

15 Soorah al-Baqarah 2:155.

16 Soorah al-Baqarah, 2:216.

17 A charm worn to bring good fortune or avert evil.

18 Collected by Ahmad.

19 Reported by ‘Aaeshah and collected by al-Bukhaaree (Sahih Al-Bukhari, (Arabic – English) vol.3, p.535, no.861), Muslim (Sahih Muslim, (English Trans.) vol.3, i,. 931, no.4266 and no.4267) and Abu Daawood (Ahmad Hasan, Sunan Abu Dawud (English Trans.), (Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers, 1st. ed., 1984), vol.3, p. 1294).

20 Reported by ‘Aa’eshah and collected by al-Bukhaaree (Sahih Al-Bukhari, (Arabic-English), vol.6, p.495, no.535) and Muslim (Sahih Muslim, (English Trans.), vol.3, p.1195, no.5439 and 5440).

21 Soorah al-Fat-h 48:6.

22 Soorah ash-Shooraa 42:11.

23 Genesis 2:2, “And on the seventh day God finished his work which he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done.” (Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version (Nelson, 1951), p.2).

24 In contrast Allaah says explicitly in the Qur’aan, “No tiredness overcomes Him nor sleep…” (Soorah al-Baqarah 2:255).

25 Exodus 32:14, “And the Lord repented of the evil which he thought to do to his people.” (Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version),

26 Allaah clearly states that in the following verse: “They ask you (Muhammad) about the spirit. Tell (them) that the spirit (exists) by my Lord’s command” (Soorah al-Israa 17:85).

27 Soorah ash-Shooraa 42-11.

28 Hebrews 7:1-3, (Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version).

29 Hebrews, 5:5-6, (Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version).

30 Muhammad Rida al-Muzaffar states in his book Faith of Shi’a Islam, (U.S.A.: Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 2nd ed. 1983): “We believe that, like the prophet, an Imam must be Infallible, that is to say incapable of making errors or doing wrong, either Inwardly or outwardly, from his birth to his death, either intentionally or unintentionally, because the Imams are the preservers of Islam and it is under their protection.” (p.32). See also Islam, (Teheran: A Group of Muslim Brothers, 1973), p.35, by Sayed Saeed Akhtar Rizvi.

31 AI-Muzaffar further states: “We maintain that the powers of the Imams to receive inspiration has reached the highest degree of excellence, and we say that it is a Divinely – given power. By this means the Imam is able to understand information about anything, anywhere, and at any time, and he understands by means of this Divinely – given power at once, without recourse to methodological reasoning or guidance from a teacher.

32 Al-Khomeini states: “Certainly the Imam has a dignified station, a lofty rank, a creational caliphate, and sovereignty and mastery over all atoms of creation.” (Aayatullah Musavi al-Khomeini, al-Hukoomah al-Islaameeyah, (Beirut: at-Talee’ah Press; Arabic ed., 1979), p.52).

33 Soorah at-Tawbah 9:128.

34 (Sunan Abu Dawud, (English Trans.), vol.3, pp. 1385-86, no.4957).

35 Soorah Yoonus 10:31.

36 Soorah az-Zukhruf, 43:87.

37 Soorah al-‘Ankaboot, 29:63.

38 Soorah Yoosuf, 12:106.

39 Mujaahid ibn Jubayr al-Makkee (642-722) was Ibn ‘Abbaas’ most outstanding student. The narrations of his Tafseer (commentary) of the Qur’aan has been compiled by ‘Abdur-Rahmaan at-Taahir and published in two volumes under the title, Tafseer Mujaahid, (Islamabad: Majma’ al-Buhooth).

40 Collected by Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree.

41 Soorah Aal’Imraan, 3:67.

42 Quoted in Sulaymaan ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab’s Tayseer al-‘Azeez al-Hameed, (Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islaamee, 2nd., 1970), p.34.

43 Soorah adh-Dhaariyiat, 51:56.

44 Soorah an-Nahl, 16:36.

45 Reported by Ibn ‘Abbaas and collected by at-Tirmidhee. See An-Nawawi’s Forty Hadith, (English Trans.), p.68.

46 Soorah al-Baqarah, 2:186.

47 Soorah Qaaf, 50:16.

48 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.1, p.387, no.1474.

49 Soorah al-Anbiyaa, 21:66.

50 Soorah al-A’raaf, 7:194.

51 Abdul-Qaadir (1077-1166) was a principal of a school of Hanbalite Law and a Ribaat (monastery) in Baghdad. His Sermons (collected in al-Fat-h ar-Rabbaane, Cairo 1302) were strictly orthodox with some, mystic interpretations of the Qur’aan. Ibn ‘Arabee (born 1165) declared him the Qutb of his time and stated that he had a rank which placed him above all beings except God. ‘Alee ibn Yousuf ash-Shattanawfee (d. 1314 CE) wrote a book called Bahjat al-Asraar (Cairo, 1304) in which he attributed many miracles to ‘Abdul-Qaadir. The Qaadireeyah Sufi order is named after him and its spiritual exercises and regulations traced back to him. (Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam, pp.5-7 and 202-205).

52 Soorah al-An’aam, 6:17.

53 Soorah az-Zumar, 39:3.

54 Faatimah was the Prophet Muhammad’s youngest daughter who married the Prophet’s cousin ‘Alee ibn Abee Taalib, and Hasan and Husayn were their sons.

55 Soorah al-Baqarah, 2:165.

56 Soorah at-Tawbah 9:13.

57 Soorah al-Maa’idah, 5:23.

58 Soorah al-Maa’idah, 5:44.

59 Soorah at-Tawbah, 9:31

60 Christian clergy made Haraam the marrying of more than one wife and the marrying of first cousins. Roman Catholicism forbade priests from marrying and forbade divorce in general.

61 The Christian Church made Halaal the consumption of pork, blood and alcohol. Some of them also made allowable painting and statues depicting God as a man.

62 Collected by at-Tirmidhee.