Archive for Women
Written by Yoginder Sikand · December 13, 2007 · 452 views
December 13, 2007
Kerala’s Muslims are unique among their co-religionists in India in fashioning a system of education that enables their children to attend both religious as well as regular schools at the same time. Muslims account for around a fourth of Kerala’s population, and the state’s Muslims, known as Mapillas, are among the most literate of the various Muslim communities in the country. Madrasas and schools run by literally hundreds of Muslim religious organizations in the state have made this possible. A recent study by Zubair Hudawi, himself a madrasa graduate from Kerala and presently a doctoral candidate at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, titled ‘Development and Modernisation of Religious Education in Kerala: The Role of the Samastha Kerala Jameyyat ul-Ulama’, discusses this contribution in great detail.
The Samastha Kerala Jameyyat ul-Ulama (SKJU) represents a traditionalist theological position, quite opposed to Islamic modernists on numerous points. Yet, as Hudawi argues, it has not hesitated from championing modern education. Hudawi, who spent several years studying at the Dar ul-Huda Islamic Academy, the SKJU’s leading centre for higher Islamic education, seeks to explain this enigma through an in-depth analysis of the organisation’s evolution and development, arguing against the notion that the traditionalist ulema are necessarily and wholly opposed to ‘modernity’. He argues that the SKJU is an excellent example of a traditionalist Muslim religious organization that, rather than opposing ‘modernity’ outright, actually facilitates it, albeit selectively. Thus, today, he writes, the SKJU runs not just several thousand madrasas but also numerous English- and Malayalam-medium schools, and scores of women’s and technical colleges. Read the rest of this entry »
In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful
The Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) Last Sermon
This sermon was delivered on the Ninth Day of Dhul Hijjah 10 A.H. in the ‘Uranah valley of Mount Arafat’ (in Mecca).
After praising, and thanking Allah he said:
“O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and TAKE THESE WORDS TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BE PRESENT HERE TODAY.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds. ALLAH has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn ‘Abd’al Muttalib (Prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived…
Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.
O People, listen to me in earnest, worship ALLAH, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
Remember, one day you will appear before ALLAH and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, NO PROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEW FAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the QURAN and my example, the SUNNAH and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O ALLAH, that I have conveyed your message to your people”.
|Wednesday, November 14, 2007|
|Fears for daughters’ rights lead some Sunnis to adopt Shiism|
|Vast difference in inheritance formulas causes many couples to convert – and not everyone approves|
| By Agence France Presse (AFP)
Ines Bel Aiba
Agence France Press
BEIRUT: Nada had no choice. The Sunni Lebanese woman decided to become a Shiite because that branch of Islam guarantees that her daughters will one day be her sole heiresses.
“If I became a Shiite it was not out of conviction,” Nada told AFP. Had she not converted, the girls’ uncle would receive the bulk of her inheritance when she died, in line with Sunni laws.
Shiites, a minority community in Islam, have sometimes been at odds with the Sunnis in the Arab world, but in Lebanon conversions between the two branches are easy and mostly done for practical purposes.
In Lebanon, religious tribunals rule on marriage, divorce and inheritance. For both Sunnis and Shiites, women receive one-third and men two-thirds of an inheritance.
Problems arise when a Sunni couple only has girls. They would inherit just a small part of the assets, while the larger part of the inheritance would go to the closest male relatives – grandfathers, uncles or cousins.
One solution for Sunni couples in such a situation is to become Shiites, as the sect’s religious regulations allow daughters to be the sole heiresses in the absence of male offspring.
Sunni couple Hassan and Sana Tawil became Shiite about 30 years ago because they had two daughters.
“We saw atrocious things happening in the family, such as an uncle who wanted to take everything from a cousin. It made an impression on us when we were children,” Hassan said.
They may be Shiites on paper but the Tawils remain deeply Sunni in practice.
“I stayed profoundly Sunni,” said Sana, confirming that she raised her daughters “in line with Sunni values.”
“Even famous Sunni politicians became Shiites for the same reason,” she explains, citing Riad Solh, who was prime minister at the time of Lebanon’s independence in 1943 and who had five daughters.
In line with Lebanon’s confessional political system, the country’s prime ministers are Sunni – although at least four of them became Shiites because they did not have sons.
Like other couples in the same situation, the Tawils went to a Shiite court, where they converted before a sheikh who, they said, seemed to be very aware of the real motives behind their conversion.
“The sheikh looked at me and asked: ‘Do you have children?’ I said yes,” recalled Sana.
“He said: ‘How many?’ I said two. He asked: ‘Boys?’ I said no.
“Then he just looked at me and nodded. And I became a Shiite,” the 63-year-old woman said with a smile.
Sheikh Mohammad Noqari, director general of Dar al-Fatwa, the highest Sunni religious authority in Lebanon, confirmed that some Sunnis were becoming Shiites – but expressed disapproval.
“It is true that some Sunnis are doing this,” he said. “But if someone converts from one Muslim confession to another for material reasons, it is not really correct.”
But for Sheikh Jaafar Fadlallah, from the Shiite Sharia Islamic Institute, converting is “an issue of personal choice.”
“Nothing should prevent a Muslim from converting to the branch that suits him best,” Fadlallah said.
Shiite authorities say that about 350 Sunnis become Shiites every year.
According to sociologist Marlene Nasr, the ramifications of such decisions are not always pleasant. “There are sometimes cases where people are ostracized” after converting, she said, “but not by the religious authorities – rather by their own families.”
Talal Khodari, a lawyer specializing in family legal affairs, said such conversions were “common,” although often “not accepted and not taken very well” in Lebanese society.
He also said that the issue sometimes causes additional family problems because male relatives feel that they are being accused, by implication, of being willing to take what rightfully belongs to their female relatives.
Copyright (c) 2007 The Daily Star
“What happens if a woman goes to court here [Saudi Arabia]?” asked my father.
“What do you mean?” I counter-questioned.
What I mean is that if a woman goes to court is she treated as an individual or are her rights based on her gender?”
Depends on the case, I guess,” I said.
“Come on,” he interjected sarcastically. “Don’t start telling me that women are treated in the manner that has been commanded by God. According to His Law they should be treated as equals. You know that that’s not the case here.”
“You just have to look around at the horrific miscarriages of justice to know that that’s definitely not the case,” he emphasized. “My point is that as much as we try to find fault with the West, one thing is for sure: I would feel far more secure with their system of justice if I were a woman than I would with the one we have here.”
Yes, in a way you’re right,” I began, “but Islam did give women rights over 1,400 years ago that the so-called civilized world has only started to recognize recently.” Read the rest of this entry »
Women in Islam (Submission)
Are men and women equal in God’s judgment?
The answer is different when it comes to God compared with traditional Islam. Every Westerner thinks that Islam is very chauvinistic and oppressive towards women. In Islam of today as practiced by most traditional sectarian Muslims, this is very true. However, in true Islam (Submission), as revealed in the Quran, nothing could be farther from the truth.
God treats men and women as spiritual equals., Quran 3:195 tells us :
“Their Lord responded to them: “I never fail to reward any worker among you for any work you do, be you MALE OR FEMALE, YOU ARE EQUAL TO ONE ANOTHER………”
Many of the Muslim countries who claim to follow Islam are treating women as a second class citizens, and some of these women accepted this situation thinking that is what Islam (Submission in English) is advocating. As mentioned previously, God, in the Quran made a complete spiritual equality between men and women, See 3:195. Read the rest of this entry »
Sports: Companies create full-body suits for Muslim women.
Sama Wareh walks on the sand in Newport Beach dressed in swim wear designed for Muslim women. (Chris Carlson / Associated Press)
LOS ANGELES - Amana Siddiqi loved swimming as a child but gave it up as a teenager because her Muslim faith required she fully cover her body in public.
“At age 15, I started to cover, so I stopped going to public pools,” said Siddiqi, now 27, whose parents come from India and Pakistan. “Most of my friends stopped, too. They felt self-conscious.”
Then last summer Siddiqi bought a specially made swimsuit that covers her body while allowing full motion – and went snorkeling, jet skiing and on water slides while on vacation in Hawaii.
Muslim girls and women are increasingly participating in athletic activities, especially as second- and third-generation children of immigrants grow up surrounded by American influences. But doing so requires them to overcome a seemingly large obstacle: Islam’s traditional emphasis on modest dress.
When it comes to water sports, the challenge can be even more difficult than in Muslim countries, where the sexes are often separated in pools and on beaches. America is predominantly co-ed, and increasingly the norm is skimpy swimsuits. Enter the all-body suit.
While full-body swimwear has been around for decades, in the last couple years it hasundergone a renaissance as the niche market has grown. Today about a dozen stores, based in the United States and abroad, sell swimwear to Muslim-American women, mostly through online catalogues. Read the rest of this entry »
ERRORS IN HAJJ AND KAFFAARAH
Errors which happen during Hajj are called Jinaayaat. There are two types of jinaayaat:
(1) Omission of the Waajib acts of Hajj.
(2) Commission of the Hajj prohibitions.
- The prohibitions of Hajj are of two kinds:
(1) The prohibitions of Ihraam.
(2) The prohibitions of the Haram Shareef (the Holy Place).
Nine errors pertain to Ihraam and two errors to Haram. Thus, there are altogether eleven errors regarding the prohibitions of Hajj. These are as follows:
(1) To apply perfume.
(2) For men to wear sewn clothes.
(3) To cover the head and f ace.
(4) To remove lice from one’s body.
(5) To kill lice.
(6) To remove hair from the body.
(7) To cut nails.
(8) To indulge in sexual relationship.
(9) To hunt or molest game (wild animals on land).
(10) To hunt in the Holy Precincts.
(11) To cut the grass or trees of the Haram.
There are several principles governing the errors committed. These will now be explained to facilitate better understanding of the errors.
FIRST PRINCIPLE: There are four ways in which the prohibitions of Hajj are committed:
(1) The prohibition is committed fully but because of a valid reason.
(2) The prohibition is committed partially but because of a valid reason.
(3) The prohibition is committed fully but without valid reason.
(4) The prohibition is committed partially but without valid reason.
The Hukm (effect and rule) of each of these four ways of commission is
different. The ruling applicable to each one is as follows:
(a) If the prohibition was committed fully, but because of a valid reason, Dum or Fasting or Sadqah becomes Waajib.
(b) If the prohibition was committed partially, but because of a valid reason, either Fasting or Sadqah is Waajib.
(c) If the prohibition was committed fully, but without valid reason, only Dum is Waajib. In this case there is no choice.
(d) If the prohibition was committed partially, but without valid reason, only Sadqah is Waajib. Again, here is no choice.
SECOND PRINCIPLE: Dum is one goat or one sheep or a seventh share of a cow or camel.
THIRD PRINCIPLE: A whole cow or a whole camel is incumbent on only two occasions, as follows:
(1) Making Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, i.e. the greater impurity or janaabat.
(2) To indulge in sexual intercourse after Wuqoof-e-Arafaat, but before shaving the head.
FOURTH PRINCIPLE: All conditions and requirements applicable to Qurbaani animals apply to the Dum animals as well.
FIFTH PRINCIPLE: Sadqah in this context is half a Saa’ (approximately 2,5 kg.) of wheat or the amount which is usually paid as Fitrah.
SIXTH PRINCIPLE: The Qaarin who commits jinaayaat in Ihraam before making Umrah is liable for two penalties since he is in two states of Ihraam. The Mufrid is liable for one penalty since he is in the state of one Ihraam. However, if the Qaarin entered the Meeqaat limits without Ihraam, only one Dum will be Waajib on him.
SEVENTH PRINCIPLE: Regarding the jinaayaat of the Haram and in the penalty pertaining to game on land, there is a choice of three ways of discharging the penalty. These are:
(1) The wild animal is to be valued and if a sacrificial animal (Dum) is available for this value or price, an animal will be purchased and slaughtered.
(2) This amount may be given in charity.
(3) One may fast instead.
Any one of these three penalties will suffice. If the option of fasting is chosen, one should consult an Alim for ascertaining the method of calculating the number of fasts to be kept. This number differs.
EIGHTH PRINCIPLE: Kaffaarah (penalty or compensation) is obligatory
even if a prohibition of Ihraam is committed on account of a valid reason.
NINTH PRINCIPLE: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted without valid reason, penalty is incumbent.
TENTH PRINCIPLE: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted on account of valid reason, penalty is not obligatory.
ELEVENTH PRINCIPLE: penalty is not incumbent on a minor nor on an insane person. However, if one became insane after having entered the state of Ihraam and later regained sanity, then penalty is obligatory for any omission of Waajib acts which had occurred.
TWELFTH PRINCIPLE: If one is unable to discharge the penalty immediately, payment at a later date will be valid.
Deliberate commission of jinaayaat is a grave and major sin. Hajj is not accepted if jinaayaat are committed deliberately.
Discharging the penalty of Jinaayaat does not set one free from the sin. After payment of the penalty it is essential to make taubah (repent) and seek forgiveness from Allah Ta’ala.
(1) If one enters the precincts of the Meeqaat without Ihraam, Dum is Waajib. If the Ihraam is adopted after entering the Meeqaat, one Dum is Waajib. However, if one returns to the Meeqaat and dons Ihraam there, then the Dum penalty falls away.
(2) One who enters the Meeqaat without Ihraam, may return to the Meeqaat as long as one has not entered Makkah Mukarramah and commenced the acts of Hajj. Until such time that one Shaut of Tawaaf has not been rendered, one may return to the Meeqaat and recite the Talbiyah there. In this case the Dum penalty falls away.
(3) The penalty of a camel or Sadqah does not apply for the omission of any Waajib act of Umrah. In this case only a sheep or goat is obligatory. However, since the Ihraam of Umrah and the Ihraam of Hajj are the same, commission of the prohibitions of Ihraam will make Sadqah incumbent.
(4) If the Tawaaf of Umrah, the whole of it or part of it, even if it is just one Shaut, was performed in the state of either Hadth- e-Akbar (janaabat) or Hadth-e-Asghar (without wudhu), then Dum is Waajib.
(5) If Tawaaf-e-Qudoom, Nafl Tawaaf or Tawaaf-e-Wida’ were performed without wudhu, the Sadqah penalty is half Saa’ wheat (the amount of Sadaqatul Fitr) for every Shaut of the Tawaaf rendered without wudhu. If the amount or value of the Sadqah for all the Shauts is equal to the price of a Dum, then slightly less than the price of a Dum should be given as Sadqah. This same rule applies to less than half of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat made without wudhu.
(6) If the whole or the greater part of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat is made in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar (janaabat), the penalty is a camel or a cow.
(7) If less than half of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat or the whole of Tawaaf-e-Qudoom or Tawaaf-e-Wida’ or Tawaaf-e- Nafl is made in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, the penalty of one goat is Waajib.
(8) If Tawaaf Ziyaarat was made in the state of janaabat and Tawaaf Wida’ was made in the state of tahaarat (purity) during the days of Nahr (10th, 11th, 12th), then this Tawaaf Wida will be considered to be Tawaaf Ziyaarat. Tawaaf Wida’ will have to be repeated. If it is not repeated, Dum is Waajib.