Traditionalist ulema lead educational revolution in Kerala

Written by Yoginder Sikand · December 13, 2007 · 452 views

December 13, 2007

Kerala’s Muslims are unique among their co-religionists in India in fashioning a system of education that enables their children to attend both religious as well as regular schools at the same time. Muslims account for around a fourth of Kerala’s population, and the state’s Muslims, known as Mapillas, are among the most literate of the various Muslim communities in the country. Madrasas and schools run by literally hundreds of Muslim religious organizations in the state have made this possible. A recent study by Zubair Hudawi, himself a madrasa graduate from Kerala and presently a doctoral candidate at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, titled ‘Development and Modernisation of Religious Education in Kerala: The Role of the Samastha Kerala Jameyyat ul-Ulama’, discusses this contribution in great detail.

The Samastha Kerala Jameyyat ul-Ulama (SKJU) represents a traditionalist theological position, quite opposed to Islamic modernists on numerous points. Yet, as Hudawi argues, it has not hesitated from championing modern education. Hudawi, who spent several years studying at the Dar ul-Huda Islamic Academy, the SKJU’s leading centre for higher Islamic education, seeks to explain this enigma through an in-depth analysis of the organisation’s evolution and development, arguing against the notion that the traditionalist ulema are necessarily and wholly opposed to ‘modernity’. He argues that the SKJU is an excellent example of a traditionalist Muslim religious organization that, rather than opposing ‘modernity’ outright, actually facilitates it, albeit selectively. Thus, today, he writes, the SKJU runs not just several thousand madrasas but also numerous English- and Malayalam-medium schools, and scores of women’s and technical colleges. Continue reading “Traditionalist ulema lead educational revolution in Kerala”

THE LAST SERMON

In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

           

The Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) Last Sermon

This sermon was delivered on the Ninth Day of Dhul Hijjah 10 A.H. in the ‘Uranah valley of Mount Arafat’ (in Mecca).

 

After praising, and thanking Allah he said:

 

“O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and TAKE THESE WORDS TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BE PRESENT HERE TODAY.

 

O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds. ALLAH has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn ‘Abd’al Muttalib (Prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived…

 

Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

 

O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.

 

O People, listen to me in earnest, worship ALLAH, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.

 

All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.

 

Remember, one day you will appear before ALLAH and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

 

O People, NO PROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEW FAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the QURAN and my example, the SUNNAH and if you follow these you will never go astray.

 

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O ALLAH, that I have conveyed your message to your people”.

 

IslamiCity

Fears for daughters’ rights lead some Sunnis to adopt Shiaism

Wednesday, November 14, 2007
Fears for daughters’ rights lead some Sunnis to adopt Shiism
Vast difference in inheritance formulas causes many couples to convert – and not everyone approves
 
By Agence France Presse (AFP)

 

Ines Bel Aiba

Agence France Press

BEIRUT: Nada had no choice. The Sunni Lebanese woman decided to become a Shiite because that branch of Islam guarantees that her daughters will one day be her sole heiresses.

“If I became a Shiite it was not out of conviction,” Nada told AFP. Had she not converted, the girls’ uncle would receive the bulk of her inheritance when she died, in line with Sunni laws.

Shiites, a minority community in Islam, have sometimes been at odds with the Sunnis in the Arab world, but in Lebanon conversions between the two branches are easy and mostly done for practical purposes.

In Lebanon, religious tribunals rule on marriage, divorce and inheritance. For both Sunnis and Shiites, women receive one-third and men two-thirds of an inheritance.

Problems arise when a Sunni couple only has girls. They would inherit just a small part of the assets, while the larger part of the inheritance would go to the closest male relatives – grandfathers, uncles or cousins.

One solution for Sunni couples in such a situation is to become Shiites, as the sect’s religious regulations allow daughters to be the sole heiresses in the absence of male offspring.

Sunni couple Hassan and Sana Tawil became Shiite about 30 years ago because they had two daughters.

“We saw atrocious things happening in the family, such as an uncle who wanted to take everything from a cousin. It made an impression on us when we were children,” Hassan said.

They may be Shiites on paper but the Tawils remain deeply Sunni in practice.

 “I stayed profoundly Sunni,” said Sana, confirming that she raised her daughters “in line with Sunni values.”

“Even famous Sunni politicians became Shiites for the same reason,” she explains, citing Riad Solh, who was prime minister at the time of Lebanon’s independence in 1943 and who had five daughters.

In line with Lebanon’s confessional political system, the country’s prime ministers are Sunni – although at least four of them became Shiites because they did not have sons.

Like other couples in the same situation, the Tawils went to a Shiite court, where they converted before a sheikh who, they said, seemed to be very aware of the real motives behind their conversion.

“The sheikh looked at me and asked: ‘Do you have children?’ I said yes,” recalled Sana.

“He said: ‘How many?’ I said two. He asked: ‘Boys?’ I said no.

“Then he just looked at me and nodded. And I became a Shiite,” the 63-year-old woman said with a smile.

Sheikh Mohammad Noqari, director general of Dar al-Fatwa, the highest Sunni religious authority in Lebanon, confirmed that some Sunnis were becoming Shiites – but expressed disapproval.

“It is true that some Sunnis are doing this,” he said. “But if someone converts from one Muslim confession to another for material reasons, it is not really correct.”

But for Sheikh Jaafar Fadlallah, from the Shiite Sharia Islamic Institute, converting is “an issue of personal choice.”

“Nothing should prevent a Muslim from converting to the  branch that suits him best,” Fadlallah said.

Shiite authorities say that about 350 Sunnis become Shiites every year.

According to sociologist Marlene Nasr, the ramifications of such decisions are not always pleasant. “There are sometimes cases where people are ostracized” after converting, she said, “but not by the religious authorities – rather by their own families.”

Talal Khodari, a lawyer specializing in family legal affairs, said such conversions were “common,” although often “not accepted and not taken very well” in Lebanese society.

He also said that the issue sometimes causes additional family problems because male relatives feel that they are being accused, by implication, of being willing to take what rightfully belongs to their female relatives.


Copyright (c) 2007 The Daily Star

Islam Without Muslims; Muslims Without Islam

“What happens if a woman goes to court here [Saudi Arabia]?” asked my father.

“What do you mean?” I counter-questioned.

What I mean is that if a woman goes to court is she treated as an individual or are her rights based on her gender?”

Depends on the case, I guess,” I said.

“Come on,” he interjected sarcastically. “Don’t start telling me that women are treated in the manner that has been commanded by God. According to His Law they should be treated as equals. You know that that’s not the case here.”

“You just have to look around at the horrific miscarriages of justice to know that that’s definitely not the case,” he emphasized. “My point is that as much as we try to find fault with the West, one thing is for sure: I would feel far more secure with their system of justice if I were a woman than I would with the one we have here.”

Yes, in a way you’re right,” I began, “but Islam did give women rights over 1,400 years ago that the so-called civilized world has only started to recognize recently.” Continue reading “Islam Without Muslims; Muslims Without Islam”

Are men and women equal in God’s judgment?

Women in Islam (Submission)


Are men and women equal in God’s judgment?

The answer is different when it comes to God compared with traditional Islam. Every Westerner thinks that Islam is very chauvinistic and oppressive towards women. In Islam of today as practiced by most traditional sectarian Muslims, this is very true. However, in true Islam (Submission), as revealed in the Quran, nothing could be farther from the truth.

God treats men and women as spiritual equals., Quran 3:195 tells us :

“Their Lord responded to them: “I never fail to reward any worker among you for any work you do, be you MALE OR FEMALE, YOU ARE EQUAL TO ONE ANOTHER………”

Many of the Muslim countries who claim to follow Islam are treating women as a second class citizens, and some of these women accepted this situation thinking that is what Islam (Submission in English) is advocating. As mentioned previously, God, in the Quran made a complete spiritual equality between men and women, See 3:195. Continue reading “Are men and women equal in God’s judgment?”

Swimwear for Muslims

Sports: Companies create full-body suits for Muslim women.

By Peter Prengaman, Associated Press Writer

 

 

Sama Wareh walks on the sand in Newport Beach dressed in swim wear designed for Muslim women. (Chris Carlson / Associated Press)

LOS ANGELES – Amana Siddiqi loved swimming as a child but gave it up as a teenager because her Muslim faith required she fully cover her body in public.

“At age 15, I started to cover, so I stopped going to public pools,” said Siddiqi, now 27, whose parents come from India and Pakistan. “Most of my friends stopped, too. They felt self-conscious.”

Then last summer Siddiqi bought a specially made swimsuit that covers her body while allowing full motion – and went snorkeling, jet skiing and on water slides while on vacation in Hawaii.

Muslim girls and women are increasingly participating in athletic activities, especially as second- and third-generation children of immigrants grow up surrounded by American influences. But doing so requires them to overcome a seemingly large obstacle: Islam’s traditional emphasis on modest dress.

When it comes to water sports, the challenge can be even more difficult than in Muslim countries, where the sexes are often separated in pools and on beaches. America is predominantly co-ed, and increasingly the norm is skimpy swimsuits. Enter the all-body suit.

While full-body swimwear has been around for decades, in the last couple years it hasundergone a renaissance as the niche market has grown. Today about a dozen stores, based in the United States and abroad, sell swimwear to Muslim-American women, mostly through online catalogues. Continue reading “Swimwear for Muslims”

ERRORS IN HAJJ AND KAFFAARAH

ERRORS IN HAJJ AND KAFFAARAH 

Errors which happen during Hajj are called Jinaayaat. There are two types of jinaayaat:

(1) Omission of the Waajib acts of Hajj.
(2) Commission of the Hajj prohibitions.

    The prohibitions of Hajj are of two kinds:

(1) The prohibitions of Ihraam.
(2) The prohibitions of the Haram Shareef (the Holy Place).

Nine errors pertain to Ihraam and two errors to Haram.  Thus, there are altogether eleven errors regarding the prohibitions of Hajj. These are as follows:
(1) To apply perfume.
(2) For men to wear sewn clothes.
(3) To cover the head and f ace.
(4) To remove lice from one’s body.
(5) To kill lice.
(6) To remove hair from the body.
(7) To cut nails.
(8) To indulge in sexual relationship.
(9) To hunt or molest game (wild animals on land).
(10) To hunt in the Holy Precincts.
(11) To cut the grass or trees of the Haram.

    • PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE ERRORS

There are several principles governing the errors committed. These will now be explained to facilitate better understanding of the errors.

FIRST PRINCIPLE: There are four ways in which the prohibitions of Hajj are committed:

(1) The prohibition is committed fully but because of a valid reason.

(2) The prohibition is committed partially but because of a valid reason.

(3) The prohibition is committed fully but without valid reason.

(4) The prohibition is committed partially but without valid reason.
The Hukm (effect and rule) of each of these four ways of commission is
different. The ruling applicable to each one is as follows:
(a) If the prohibition was committed fully, but because of a valid reason, Dum or Fasting or Sadqah becomes Waajib.

(b) If the prohibition was committed partially, but because of a valid reason, either Fasting or Sadqah is Waajib.

(c) If the prohibition was committed fully, but without valid reason, only Dum is Waajib. In this case there is no choice.

(d) If the prohibition was committed partially, but without valid reason, only Sadqah is Waajib. Again, here is no choice.
SECOND PRINCIPLE: Dum is one goat or one sheep or a seventh share of a cow or camel.

THIRD PRINCIPLE: A whole cow or a whole camel is incumbent on only two occasions, as follows:

(1) Making Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, i.e. the greater impurity or janaabat.

(2) To indulge in sexual intercourse after Wuqoof-e-Arafaat, but before shaving the head.

FOURTH PRINCIPLE: All conditions and requirements applicable to Qurbaani animals apply to the Dum animals as well.

FIFTH PRINCIPLE: Sadqah in this context is half a Saa’ (approximately 2,5 kg.) of wheat or the amount which is usually paid as Fitrah.
SIXTH PRINCIPLE: The Qaarin who commits jinaayaat in Ihraam before making Umrah is liable for two penalties since he is in two states of Ihraam. The Mufrid is liable for one penalty since he is in the state of one Ihraam. However, if the Qaarin entered the Meeqaat limits without Ihraam, only one Dum will be Waajib on him.

SEVENTH PRINCIPLE: Regarding the jinaayaat of the Haram and in the penalty pertaining to game on land, there is a choice of three ways of discharging the penalty. These are:
(1) The wild animal is to be valued and if a sacrificial animal (Dum) is available for this value or price, an animal will be purchased and slaughtered.

(2) This amount may be given in charity.

(3) One may fast instead.
Any one of these three penalties will suffice. If the option of fasting is chosen, one should consult an Alim for ascertaining the method of calculating the number of fasts to be kept. This number differs.

EIGHTH PRINCIPLE: Kaffaarah (penalty or compensation) is obligatory
even if a prohibition of Ihraam is committed on account of a valid reason.
NINTH PRINCIPLE: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted without valid reason, penalty is incumbent.

TENTH PRINCIPLE: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted on account of valid reason, penalty is not obligatory.
ELEVENTH PRINCIPLE: penalty is not incumbent on a minor nor on an insane person. However, if one became insane after having entered the state of Ihraam and later regained sanity, then penalty is obligatory for any omission of Waajib acts which had occurred.

TWELFTH PRINCIPLE: If one is unable to discharge the penalty immediately, payment at a later date will be valid.
Deliberate commission of jinaayaat is a grave and major sin. Hajj is not accepted if jinaayaat are committed deliberately.
Discharging the penalty of Jinaayaat does not set one free from the sin. After payment of the penalty it is essential to make taubah (repent) and seek forgiveness from Allah Ta’ala.

      •  THE RULES OF JINAAYAT

(1) If one enters the precincts of the Meeqaat without Ihraam, Dum is Waajib. If the Ihraam is adopted after entering the Meeqaat, one Dum is Waajib. However, if one returns to the Meeqaat and dons Ihraam there, then the Dum penalty falls away.

(2) One who enters the Meeqaat without Ihraam, may return to the Meeqaat as long as one has not entered Makkah Mukarramah and commenced the acts of Hajj. Until such time that one Shaut of Tawaaf has not been rendered, one may return to the Meeqaat and recite the Talbiyah there. In this case the Dum penalty falls away.

(3) The penalty of a camel or Sadqah does not apply for the omission of any Waajib act of Umrah. In this case only a sheep or goat is obligatory. However, since the Ihraam of Umrah and the Ihraam of Hajj are the same, commission of the prohibitions of Ihraam will make Sadqah incumbent.

(4) If the Tawaaf of Umrah, the whole of it or part of it, even if it is just one Shaut, was performed in the state of either Hadth- e-Akbar (janaabat) or Hadth-e-Asghar (without wudhu), then Dum is Waajib.

(5) If Tawaaf-e-Qudoom, Nafl Tawaaf or Tawaaf-e-Wida’ were performed without wudhu, the Sadqah penalty is half Saa’ wheat (the amount of Sadaqatul Fitr) for every Shaut of the Tawaaf rendered without wudhu. If the amount or value of the Sadqah for all the Shauts is equal to the price of a Dum, then slightly less than the price of a Dum should be given as Sadqah. This same rule applies to less than half of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat made without wudhu.

(6) If the whole or the greater part of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat is made in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar (janaabat), the penalty is a camel or a cow.

(7) If less than half of Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat or the whole of Tawaaf-e-Qudoom or Tawaaf-e-Wida’ or Tawaaf-e- Nafl is made in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, the penalty of one goat is Waajib.

(8) If Tawaaf Ziyaarat was made in the state of janaabat and Tawaaf Wida’ was made in the state of tahaarat (purity) during the days of Nahr (10th, 11th, 12th), then this Tawaaf Wida will be considered to be Tawaaf Ziyaarat. Tawaaf Wida’ will have to be repeated. If it is not repeated, Dum is Waajib.

What Islam says About the Beard

What Islam says About the Beard

[excerpts from The Shari Length of the Beard by Mufti Afzal Elias]

This pamphlet is to emphasize the importance and the length of the beard. Many Muslims have queried regarding this point. I have also found that people prefer keeping a beard in imitation of what’s in vogue rather than that prescribed by Nabi (Sallallâhu Alayhi Wasallam). A compilation of this nature has become important because the impact of the western way of life seems to be luring unwary Muslims into such a craze that the importance of the beard itself is being doubted and scoffed at.

To those who feel the issue is trivial to worry about, may ALLAH guide him. But to those who genuinely wish to learn and practice what is right, here are sufficient proofs from the Holy Qur’ân, Ahadîth, and learned scholars.

Concerning Adherence to the Sunnah in the Holy Qur’ân:

  • “O ye who believe! Obey Allâh, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you.” [Holy Qur’ân 4:59]
  • “O ye who believe! Obey Allâh and His Messenger, and turn not away from him when ye hear (him speak).” [Holy Qur’ân 8:20]
  • “O ye who believe! give your response to Allâh and His Messenger, when He calleth you to that which will give you life; and know that Allâh cometh in between a man and his heart, and that it is He to Whom ye shall (all) be gathered.”  [Holy Qur’ân 8:24]
  • “Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allâh an excellent exempler for him who hopes in Allâh and the Final Day, and who remembers Allâh.” [Holy Qur’ân 33:21]
  • “What Allâh has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from the people of the townships,- belongs to Allâh,- to His Messenger and to kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarer; in order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. So take what the Messenger gives you, and refrain from what he prohibits you. And fear Allâh: for Allâh is strict in Punishment.” [Holy Qur’ân 59:7]

Importance of the Beard in the Words of Rasulullah :

  1.  Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) said “I have no connection iwth one who shaves, shouts and tears his clothing eg. in grief or affication.” – Reported by Abu Darda (R.A.) in Muslim, Hadith no. 501
  2. The teachings of Hadhrat Ammar Bin Yaasir, Abdullah Ibn Umar, Sayyidina Umar, Abu Hurairah and Jaabir (R.A.), indicate that ALL used to keep beards that were one fist length or more. Hadhrat Jaabir (R.A.) had said: “We used to grow long beards and only during Hajj and Umrah did we trim them to the required length (i.e. fist length).”
  3. Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (R.A.) relates that: “He who imitates the kuffar (non-believers) and dies in that state, he will be raised up with them on the Day of Qiyâmat (Judgement).”
  4. Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) says: “Trim closely the moustache, and let the beard flow (Grow).” – Narrated Ibn Umar (R.A.) in Muslim, Hadith no. 498
  5. “Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) ordered us to trim the moustache closely and spare the beard” says Ibn Umar. – Muslim, Hadith no. 449
  6. Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam)said: “Act against contrary to the polythesists, trim closely the moustache and grow the beard.” – Reported by Ibn Umar (R.A.) in Muslim, Hadith no. 500
  7. Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) said “Trim closely the moustache and grow the beard.” – Reported by Abu Hurairah (R.A.) in Muslim, Hadith no. 501
  8. Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) said: “Anyone who shaves has no claim to the mercy of Allâh” – Reported by Ibn Abbas (R.A.) in Tibrabi
  9.  Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (R.A.) used to cut that portion (which exceeds the grip of the hand) of the beard.- Tirmidhi

The Beard according to the Great Imâms of Jurisprudence

HANAFI

Imam Muhammed (R.A.) writes in his book “Kitabul Aathaar” where he relates from Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) who relates from Hadhrat Haytham (R.A.) who relates from Ibn Umar (R.A.) that he (Ibn Umar) used to hold his beard in his hand and cut off which was longer. Imam Muhammed (R.A.) says that this is what we follow and this was the decision of Imam Abu Hanifa. Therefore, according to Hanafis, to shorten the beard less than a FIST LENGTH is HARAAM and on this is IJMA’ (concensus of opinion).

ASH-SHAFI’

Imam Ash-Shafi’ (R.A.) in his Kitabul Umm states, “To shave the beard is HARAAM.” (Shari Minhaj dar Shara Fasl Aqeeqa).

MALIKI

Shekh Ahmad Nafarawi Maliki in the commentary of Imam Abu Zayed’s booklet states, “to shave the beard is without doubt haraam according to all Imams.” It is also mention in “Tamheed” which is a commentary of “al-Muwatta” (Sunnan Imam Malik (R.A.)) that to shave the beard is HARAAM and among males the only ones to resort to this practice (of shaving) are the HERMAPHRODITES (persons who possess both male and female features and characteristics).

HANBALI

The Hanbalis in the famous Al-Khanie’a Hanbali Fatawa Kitab state that “to grow the beard is essential and to shave it is HARAAM.” Also in the Hanbali Mathab books “Sharahul Muntahaa” and “Sharr Manzoomatul Âdâb“, it is stated “The most accepted view is that it is HARAAM (prohibited) to shave the beard.”

Also note, according to scholars of Islam: “To shave off the beard is haraam (unlawful) and one who shaves his beard is, legally speaking, FASIQ (sinner); hence, it is NOT PERMISSIBLE to appoint such a man as an Imam. To say Taraweeh behind such an Imam is MAKRUH-E-TAHRIMI (near prohibition)” (Shami Vol.1, p.523)

The Durre-Mukhtar states: “No one has called it permissible to trim it (the beard) less than FIST-LENGTH as is being done by some westernized Muslims and hermaphrodites.” (Vol. 2, p. 155). Also, “It is forbidden (haraam) for a man to cut off another’s beard.” (Vol. 5, p. 359).

CONCLUSION

Thus, a Muslim who shaves or shortens his beard is like a hermaphrodite, his Imamate near prohibition, his evidence is not valid, he will not have the right to vote or being voted for. Shaving and shortening the beard is the action of non-believers. Imam Ghazzali (RA) says: “Know that the key to total bliss (Saadah) lies in following the Sunnah and in emulating the life of Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) in ALL that issues from him, and in ALL his doings even if it concerns the manner of his eating, rising, sleeping, and speaking. I do say this in relation to rituals in worship ONLY because there is no way neglecting the Sunnah reported of him in such matters – but what I say INCLUDES EVERY ASPECT of his daily life.” (Kitab al Arbain Addin, Cairo 1344, p. 89). Furthermore, in the Holy Qur’ân, Allâh told Rasulullah (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) to say:

“Say: “If ye do love Allâh, Follow me: Allâh will love you and forgive you your sins: For Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Holy Qur’ân 3:31]

 The daily recitation of a band of angels of Allâh is “Holy is the Being who adorned men with beards and women with braids” (Takmela e Bahr al Raiq, Vol. 3, p. 331)

Lastly, Allâh Ta’ala says in the Holy Qur’ân:

“And when the true believers are called to Allâh and His Rasul (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam) [to accept and practice the law and commands of Allâh and His Rasul (SallAllâhu Alayhi Wasallam)] that he may pass judgement upon them, their ONLY reply is ‘We hear and obey.’ Such men shall surely prosper.” [24:51]

 THE CALL IS TO GROW A FIST LENGTH BEARD, LET US HEAR AND OBEY TO PROSPER.

 


The Blessed Beard… Grow it, what’s so hard to understand?

(Commentary) Muslims are overcome with western influence in their lives and it’s easy to forget, nay, neglect the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him). Little do these Muslims realize the magnitude of their actions in imitating Kufaar (see Hadith section). Hopefully the information presented herein will enlighten those. And then there are others who claim that the matters concerning beards is a “little” issue not worthy of mention nor practice. To them I say get off the denial bandwagon, you’re a Muslim! Follow the Prophet (Peace be upon him) in all aspects of life, for he was the best of examples. I couldn’t tell you how many times I’ve mistaken a Muslim brother (outside of the Masjid) for a kaafir on account of his clean-shaven, well oiled, face. How can I say “Assalaamu Alaikum Brother!” when I do not know if he is a Muslim. Yet that very brother then wonders why he was ignored! From one brother to another, I say: “Grow a beard, then, since it also promotes Brotherhood in the real world. Stand with your Brothers, be one. We know you are handsome without it (a beard), but who cares? What matters is how Allâh (S.W.T.) sees you. And when you do grow a beard, don’t mock the Sunnah, please grow it correctly, i.e. FIST LENGTH. That is the prescribed length and no shorter (see Hadeeth section)…” Peace.   Original document copied from http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/2193/beard.html

Abortion is Murder, No ifs or buts…

In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

 

 

Abortion is Murder, No ifs or buts…

 

———–

[Editor’s Note: This is a reply to an article by Mr Edip Yuksel called “Abortion is Murder if……” in which the author expressed his opinion that abortion should be permitted in the first three months of pregnancy.] “Have you noted those who claim that they believed in what was revealed to you, and in what was revealed before you, then uphold the laws of idolatry? They were commanded to reject such laws. indeed, It is the devils wish to lead them far astray 4:60.

The abortion issue has always been a hot topic. For the last 1400 years, the majority of the Muslims were misled by their scholars into believing that abortion in the first three months of pregnancy is permissible. While disregarding the clear orders in the Quran, these Muslims built their conclusion on fabricated hadiths. Some of these hadiths claimed that the soul of the fetus does not enter the body until the fourth month of gestation and therefore killing the fetus is permissible.

It was God’s blessing that we were guided back to the Quran by the messenger of the covenant who strongly refused the fabricated hadiths and clearly indicated that the Quran certainly condemns the killing of both the born and the unborn children.

As we learned from history, after the departure of every messenger, some people will distort the message and confuse the others. Now we hear the call to go back to the laws of ignorance and allow the killing of the unborn children during the first three months of pregnancy. This call comes from those who are confused, misled, misinformed and misguided.

“Losers are those who killed their children foolishly, due to their lack of knowledge, and prohibited what God has provided for them, and followed innovations attributed to God. They have gone astray, they are not guided.” (6:140)

Abortion, what is it ?

Webster’s dictionary defines abortion as the expulsion of a non-viable fetus during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Remember that, in the abortion performed today, the abortionists induce the expulsion of a viable fetus, or in other terms kill the living fetus to bring him/her down. What is the stand of the Quran on the abortion issue ? Let us find out.

Quran, the first revelation:

The believers know that every word, letter, name, number and gesture in the Quran is chosen deliberately. It should not surprise us to find out that the name God chose for the first revelation of the Quran, was not Muhammed, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, The Sun, the Moon, the Iron, the winds, the stars, the night, the people, or the Jinn..etc. The name God chose for His first revelation was “The hanging embryo”, Sura 96. This hanging embryo stage starts about 6 days after the fertilization of the ovum, not after three months of pregnancy. How significant or insignificant is this choice, it is up to you to ponder. Let us keep this in mind while studying the rest of the Quran that deals with this issue.

Killing the soul or the body !!

Some argued, on no basis but fabricated hadiths, that the fetus in the first four months do not have a soul yet and therefore it is permissible to kill him/her. They do not realize that the soul has nothing to do with abortion. In abortion you are dealing with the physical body and its life, you are destroying the physical body of the fetus not the soul. We cannot kill the soul even if we try. Whether the soul entered the fetus body in the first minute of life or after four months of pregnancy is irrelevant to the abortion issue.

Killing, condemned:

Killing any person is strongly condemned in the Quran. God has made life sacred. Killing the children is specifically condemned as they are the helpless victims in every society.

“You shall not kill any (Nafs) person – for GOD has made life
sacred – except in the course of justice…….”(17:33)

“You shall not kill your children due to fear of poverty. We provide
for them, as well as for you. Killing them is a gross offense”(17:31)

“Say, “Come let me tell you what your Lord has really
prohibited for you: You shall not set up idols besides
Him. You shall honor your parents. You shall not kill
your children from fear of poverty – we provide for you
and for them. You shall not commit gross sins, obvious or
hidden. You shall not kill any (Nafs) person – GOD has made
life sacred – except in the course of justice. These are His
commandments to you, that you may understand.”
[6:151]

What does the word “Children” in the verse include ?. This word “Children” is the translation of the Arabic word “Awlad”. “Do not kill your (Awlad) children..”.

One author of an abortion article claims that, the Webster’s dictionary defines a child as “Young human being” which is true but is also half the truth. The dictionary also defines a child as ” the unborn or recently born person”. That author used this half truth to support his opinion that killing the unborn children is not covered by these verse, 17:33 and 6:151

Again the same author has been misinforming the reader by claiming that the word “Awlad (Children)” and “Walad (Child)” in Arabic are used ONLY for the born children. He concludes that the order in 71:31 and 6:151 applies only to the killing of born children.

The truth of the matter is that both the words, Children in English and Awlad in Arabic are used for both the born and unborn children in their prospective languages. The order in 17:33 and 6:151 applies to both born and unborn children.

A simple and extra effort by that author would have saved him and those who believed him the big confusion. The Arabic dictionaries describe the unborn child as “Walad in the mother’s womb”. The born child in Arabic is called “Maolood”. “Walad” in Arabic like the word child in English can be used for both the born and the unborn. Although the word “Walad” is derived from the root “Walada” (to give birth), it does not mean that “Walad” has to be born but rather related to the process of birth. The word “Walid” in Arabic is used for father, only because he was a partner in causing this birth to happen and not because he was born or gives birth. God used the word Maolood in the Quran, (31:33). Had God willed, he could have said, “Do not kill your Maoloods” (born children) to specify this category of children.

In 17:31 and 6:151, God is ordering us, not to kill the born or the unborn children.

God cares about the first three months of pregnancy:

The sincere student of the Quran will find out that God is telling us in 2:226 and 65:4 that the first three months of pregnancy are so important that a divorced woman will have to change her life plan if she found herself pregnant. The matter is no more of her own concern, but it is God’s concern. God’s concern is for the pregnancy and specifically for these first few months of pregnancy. Women who get divorced have an interim of three months before getting married again. This is done MAINLY to see if they are pregnant or not. God then orders them to forget their own wishes and plans and respect the new life created in their wombs. If the first three months of pregnancy were not important God would have told these women not to wait and to have abortion and keep their life plans as they wish. If a married woman get divorced before having a full marital relationship with her husband, she dose not have to wait for three months, 33:49. She would have no interim. Since there is no chance of her being pregnant , the matter is only of her concern.

God cares about the whole three months of early pregnancy as much as we can see from the Quran’s treatment of the divorce cases. God named his first revelation after the hanging embryo, not by accident. This hanging embryo, is a stage that starts in 6 days after the fertilization of the ovum.

The New Creature:

“Then we developed the drop into a hanging (embryo), then
developed the hanging (embryo) into a bite-size (fetus),
then created the bite-size (fetus) into bones, then
covered the bones with flesh. We thus produce (Anshaa) a new
creature. Most blessed is GOD, the best Creator.” [23:14]

In verse 23:14, God described the creation of the human being from a tiny drop until he produced a new creature. The advocates of abortion in the first three months of pregnancy, consider the way God described the production of a new creature in this verse (by using the Arabic word Anshaa`) as their proof of the time when the soul joins the body of the fetus. On this basis, they claim that it is OK to kill the fetus before that, since he/she does not have a soul. They are missing many points here. First, abortion has nothing to do with the soul as we explained before. In abortion you kill the physical body of the fetus. You do not and cannot kill the soul. Therefore the time the soul joins the physical body is not important and irrelevant, and God never elaborated on it in the Quran. Second, the word (Anshaa`), in 23:14, is used exclusively in the Quran for the production or construction of a physical being, human or non-human, e.g. the humans, the trees, the clouds, communities..etc. Please see 23:14,19,31,42; 6:141; 11:61 and 53:32. This word (Anshaa`) or its derivatives have never been used by God in the Quran to describe anything that has to do with the soul. To assure the believers, God used another word (Nafakha) repeatedly to describe the joining of the soul and the physical body. See 3:49, 5:110. 15:29, 21:91, 32:9, 39:72 and 66:12.

The use of the word (Anshaa`) to describe the new creature is referring to the physical body of the developing fetus and not to the soul. The fetus will look completely different then, compared with the way it started as a tiny drop. Check any embryology book to appreciate this vast difference.

Note also that God used the word (Anshaa`) four times in sura 23, to give the sincere believer the clue he/she needs.

Abusing the Quran and the Mathematics:

Abusing verses 31:14, 46:15 and 2:233, the author of an article about abortion claims that the last six months of pregnancy are the only important months in the life of the unborn child and therefore it should be permissible to kill the child in the first three months of pregnancy.

Let us study these two verses. Verse 46:15 tells us that the total period for both pregnancy and nursing is 30 months. We know that this is an average estimate and the verse does not define which part of these 30 month is the pregnancy and which is the nursing time. Verse 2:233 tells us that nursing the newborn can be extended as long as two years for those who want to continue nursing. It does not define nursing as obligatory 24 months. It does not say nursing for two months, three months or 20 months is not permitted. In other words the period of nursing is maximum of 24 months but can be as short as one day.

Making an equation from these numbers, the author of the abortion article claimed :

30 months ( average of pregnancy and nursing) – 24 months ( maximum of nursing) = 6 months

He concluded that only 6 months of the pregnancy period are important and they have to be the last 6 months.

Any one who does not realize that the two numbers in the above equation are variables will be easily deceived. You cannot deduct one variable from another and come up with a fixed number. To make such a serious conclusion from this false equation is a sign of misguidance.

More to our surprise, was that the author concluded that it is the last 6 months (not the first 6 months) of pregnancy that are the important ones. Without any equations or calculations, any intelligent human being can realize that children born after only 6 months of pregnancy can survive and live to be mature adults. Children born after 6 months only of pregnancy can be nursed up to 24 months to complete the 30 months if they need to. Children born after 7,8 or 9 months may need less nursing time as we all know. If we are to make any conclusion from the above numbers we should know that, God is showing us that the first and not the last six months of the pregnancy are the important months for the life of a healthy child. To have it backward is a clear sign of confusion. The above equation is wrong, misleading and inappropriate.

31:14 states, “We enjoined the human being to honor his parents. His mother bore him and the load got heavier and heavier, It takes up to two years of intensive care until weaning…”.

This expression “up to” (fee)(in Arabic) or “within” has been missed by those who do not understand Arabic. The word (fee) in Arabic can be used for place or time, if used for a place it will mean “in” and if used for time it will mean “within”.

The confirmation of this period comes from God In 2:233 when God teaches us that mothers shall nurse their Infants two full years if the father so wishes. Which also means if the father has no objection, the mother can nurse them any period of time shorter than or longer than two years.

Which, What, Who, or Whom:

A question was raised about the use of the Arabic pronoun “Ma” in the Quran to describe the unborn child. The writer tried to imply that “Ma” which is translated as “What” or “which” as used in (2:228) and (3:35) signify that an unborn child is a non-person. While this typically demonstrates to us what God means in verse 3:7, it clearly reflects how God can control the teaching of the Quran as stated in 55:1-2. The use of the pronoun “Ma” has no significance regarding whether the unborn child is a real person or a nonperson. First in (2:228), God states that He knows what He created in the womb, and this covers the whole period of pregnancy, whether the unborn child is one month or nine months old. It does not make a difference, age wise. Second in (3:35) the use of the word “Ma” again carry the same meaning as in (2:228). God clarifies this more in the next verse (3:36) when God uses the same pronoun “Ma” for the born child “God was fully aware of what she bore”. It is more interesting to see that verse (22:2) was used twice in arguing the abortion issue but the author failed twice to recognize the simple “Ma” that God used in that verse for the nursing infant. So, “Ma” has been used in the Quran for born and unborn child without discrimination. To imply that God used the word (MA) for the unborn child because of the insignificance of the fetus is naive and dangerous especially when added to the ignorance of the author with the proper Arabic language.

A question to produce confusion among the people is as innocent as the wolf denying his preying on the little lamb while his teeth are still stained with his blood.

The Misfortune:

No description of a misfortune surpasses God’s revelation In (63:1-3).

“When the hypocrites come to you they say, “We bear
witness that you are the messenger of GOD.” GOD knows
that you are His messenger, and GOD bears witness that
the hypocrites are liars.
Under the guise of their apparent faith, they repel the
people from the path of GOD. Miserable indeed is what
they do  This is because they believed, then disbelieved. Hence,
their minds are blocked; they do not understand. ”

The misfortunate person has to be the person who is following his own ego. In (45:23). God warns us:

“Have you noted the one whose god is his ego?
Consequently, GOD sends him astray, despite his
knowledge, seals his hearing and his mind, and places a
veil on his eyes. Who then can guide him, after such a
decision by GOD? Would you not take heed?” [45:23]

The Exception:

As we all know, every rule has an exception including the religious laws. After all attempts are made to save both the mother and the unborn child, and under unusual situations, abortion may be allowed to save the mother’s life. This is permitted, not only during the first three months of pregnancy, but during any time during the pregnancy. Cases of rape have no place in this discussion. Women who are victims of rape have enough time (as much as 6 days) to use available medical treatments to avoid any possible pregnancy. If the rape victim waited until she finds out that she is pregnant, it is too late and she has no excuse to kill the child created in her womb.

In Conclusion :

(1) Quran condemns the killing of born and unborn children (6:151, 17:31,6:140,60:12), i.e. abortion is murder.

(2) The messengers of God deliver the message, they do not distort it.(3:20, 5:92, 5:99….)

(3) History repeats itself. The followers of the messenger are the ones who usually distort the message. Their excuse has been, “our intentions were honorable and righteous”. (61:4)

(4) All claims of religious knowledge should be subjected to the utmost scrutiny to avoid falling in the same trap of previous generations, (17:36).

(5) Knowledgeable people recognize their mistakes (7:23). ignorant people by mistake, recognize their knowledge (7:30.19:104, 59:18).

Islamic WEDDING CEREMONY FORMAT

 

Here are two suggested examples of   formats that were used during  recent wedding ceremonies. It is by no mean obligatory or necessary to use them in this order, form or shape. It can be done in the name of God and His blessing in any format that suit each couple  and each community.


 

(1)

I seek refuge in GOD, from Satan the rejected

In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

 

Peace be upon you.

Person doing marriage service:

We are gathered here to witness the marriage of Mr………. and Ms……

Marriage, like all of God’s provisions is a sign and a gift for us:

“Among His proofs is that He created for you spouses from among yourselves, in order to have tranquility and contentment with each other, and He placed in your hearts love and care towards your spouses. In this, there are sufficient proofs for people who think. ” [30:21]

This gift is thankfully accepted, for God tells us:

“The more you thank Me, the more I give you….” [14:7]

 

Bride :

God, I thankfully and joyfully accept this gift from God of  …….as my husband.

Groom :

God, I thankfully and joyfully accept this gift from God of ………as my wife.

Person doing marriage service, as he lights candle:

“GOD is the light of the heavens and the earth. The allegory of His light is that of a concave mirror behind a lamp that is placed inside a glass container. The glass container is like a bright, pearl-like star. The fuel thereof is supplied from a blessed oil-producing tree, that is neither eastern, nor western. Its oil is almost self-radiating; needs no fire to ignite it. Light upon light. GOD guides to His light whoever wills (to be guided). GOD thus cites the parables for the people. GOD is fully aware of all things. “[24:35]

 

Husband and wife together:

God, take our will and our life.
Guide our marriage.
Show us how to live.

Our best wishes to the couple.


 

(2)

[1:1] In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
[1:2] Praise be to GOD, Lord of the universe.
[1:3] Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
[1:4] Master of the Day of Judgment.
[1:5] You alone we worship; You alone we ask for help.
[1:6] Guide us in the right path:
[1:7] the path of those whom You blessed; not of those who have deserved wrath, nor of the strayers.

 

[30:21]. Among His proofs is that He created for you spouses from among yourselves, in order to have tranquility and contentment with each other, and He placed in your hearts love and care towards your spouses. In this, there are sufficient proofs for people who think.

 

Love has given you wings,
and your journey begins today,
(Bride) and (Groom), wherever the wind may carry you,
you will stay side by side, day after day.

Now you will feel no rain, for each of you will be shelter for the other.
Now you will feel no cold, for each of you will be warmth to the other.
Now there will be no loneliness, for each of you will be companion to the other.
Now you are two persons, but there is only one life before you.

May God’s blessings surround you both in the journey ahead and through all the years, May happiness be your companion, on this earth and in the Hereaftre, and your days together be good , righteous and long upon the earth.

 

Officiant:

I ask you now in the presence of God and this congregation to declare your intent.

Will you, (Bride), have this man to be your husband, to live together in a holy marriage?Will you love him, comfort him, honor and keep him in sickness and in health, and forsaking all others, be faithful to him as long as you both shall live?

 

Bride: I will

 

Officiant:

Will you, (groom), have this woman to be your wife, to live together in a holy marriage?Will you love her, comfort her, honor and keep her in sickness and in health, and forsaking all others, be faithful to her as long as you both shall live?

Groom: I will

The Blessing of the Rings;

The wedding ring is the outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual bond which unites two loyal hearts in endless love. It is a seal of the vows (groom) and (bride) have made to one another. Bless O God these rings, that (bride) and (groom), who give them, and who wear them, may ever abide in thy peace. Living together in unity, love and happiness for the rest of their lives

 

The Exchange of rings:

(bride’s name), I give you this ring as a symbol of our vows, and with all that I am, and all that I have, I honor you. In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful. With this ring, I thee wed.

 

(groom’s name), I give you this ring as a symbol of our vows, and with all that I am, and all that I have, I honor you. In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful. With this ring, I thee wed.

 

Declaration of Marriage:

In as much as you have each pledged to the other your lifelong commitment, love and devotion, I now pronounce you husband and wife, In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful.

Those whom God has joined together let no one put asunder.

“Our Lord, direct us to appreciate the blessings You have bestowed upon us and upon our parents, and to work righteousness that pleases You. Let our children to be righteous as well “(46:15),

“…and admit us an honorable admittance and let us depart an honorable departure. Grant us from You a powerful support “(17:80).

“…and shower our parents with Your mercy for they have raised us from infancy” (17:24).

“Our Lord, let our spouses and our children be a source of joy for us, and keep us in the forefront of the righteous” (25:74).

“Grant us what you promised us through Your messengers and do not forsake us on the Day of Resurrection. You never break a promise “(3:194).

 

God bless you and Congratulation.


 

See the third Wedding ceremony at;

http://www.submission.org/women/marriage-ceremony.html

Submitters’ Dress

O children of Adam, we have provided
you with garments to cover your
bodies, as well as for luxury.
But the best garment is the
garment of righteousness…
[7:26]

The majority of the so-called Muslim countries use the Arabic word “Hijab” for “Muslim” dress, and it has come to mean that women must cover everything except their eyes. This is exemplified in Afghanistan now, or more moderately, in Iran and some other “Muslim” countries where the women cover all of their bodies except face and hands. But the word “Hijab” has nothing to do with Muslim dress. As we will see, “Hijab” in the Quran means a combination of physical and spiritual barriers. In some “Muslim” countries, a woman’s space is also decreed by using the word hijab. She is asked to stay home and not leave the house. All the above restrictions have come about because of the misunderstanding of the verse 33:53 where the Almighty says to speak to the prophet’s wives from behind a barrier (hijab). Let us go to the source.

What is Hijab?

The word hijab has been used in the Quran seven times:

1. The dwellers of paradise will call the dwellers of hell: “we have found our Lord’s promise to be the truth, have you found your Lord’s promise to be the truth?” They will say, “yes.” An announcer between them will announce, “God’s condemnation has befallen the transgressors; …who repel from the path of God and strive to make it crooked, and with regard to the hereafter, they are disbelievers.” …A barrier (hijab) separates them, while the purgatory is occupied by people who recognize each side by their looks, They will call the dwellers of paradise, “peace be upon you.” They did not enter (paradise) through wishful thinking [7:44-46].

God barred the disbelievers from heaven. Therefore the barrier (hijab) here is spiritual as well as physical.

2. When you read the Quran, we place between you and those who do not believe in the hereafter an invisible barrier (hijab) [17:45].

3. Mention in the scripture Mary, she isolated herself from her family, into an eastern location. …While a barrier (hijab) separated her from them, we sent to her our Spirit. He went to her in the form of a human being [19:16-17].

Mary isolated herself from her family and relocated while a “barrier” (hijab) separated her, spiritually and physically, from them. At that time God sent Gabriel to her.

4. A scripture whose verses provide the complete details, in an Arabic Quran, for people who know…. A bearer of good news, as well as a warner. However, most of them turn away; they do not hear. …They said, “our minds are made up, our ears are deaf to your message, and a barrier (hijab) separates us from you. Do what you want and so will we” [41:3-5].

Because they put on themselves a physical barrier of refusing God’s message, God placed a spiritual barrier on them, making them deaf to the message.

5. No human being can communicate with God except through inspiration, from behind a barrier (hijab), or by sending a messenger through whom He reveals what He wills…. [42:51].

6. O you who believe, do not enter the prophet’s homes unless you are given permission to eat, nor shall you force such an invitation in any manner. If you are invited, you may enter. When you finish eating, you shall leave; do not engage him in lengthy conversations. This used to hurt the prophet, and he was too shy to tell you. But God does not shy away from the truth. If you ask his wives for something, ask them from behind a barrier (hijab). This is purer for your hearts and their hearts…. [33:53].

7. He then said, “I enjoyed the material things more than I enjoyed worshipping my Lord, until the sun was gone (tawaret bel-hijab). [ 38:32]

The prophet’s wives, while at home and relaxing, were not to be disturbed by men during their private times. God made their lives easier by commanding the men to speak to them, if at home, from behind a barrier (hijab). Some “Muslim” scholars have interpreted this to mean that only from outside walls could a man communicate with the prophet’s wives. They also understood from the same verse that the prophet’s wives never left home. They, therefore, wrongly concluded that their wives too must stay at home.

The Arabic word for walls in the Quran is “al hujrat” not hijab. “As for those who call on you (Muhammad) from outside the walls (al hujrat), most of them do not understand” [49:4]. If women were supposed to stay home all the time, there would not have been a need for commandments concerning the dress code for them.

Are Women Men’s Property?

Unfortunately, in some so-called Muslim countries, women are referred to as the “private part,” and that is why they have come to see themselves as man’s private property. The word “private part” goes hand in hand with the word (hijab). When scholars are asked what is the “private part” of the woman, the answer is the whole woman is a private part. In Arabic the private part is “awraat” and this word has been used in the Quran in three places.

1. In [24:31], “awraat” means puberty, the state in which you become aware of the other’s sex physically.

2. O you who believe permission must be requested by your servants and the children who have not attained puberty (awraat) (before entering your room). This is to be done in three instances before the dawn prayer, at noon when you change your clothes to rest, and after the night prayer. These are three private times for you. At other times it is not wrong for you or them to mingle with one another [24:58].

In this verse, “awraat” means puberty also.

3. A group of them said, “O people of Yathrib, you cannot attain victory; go back.” Others made up excuses to the prophet, “Our homes are exposed (awraat).” They just wanted to flee [33:13]. In this verse awraat means vulnerable to attack.

It is obvious from the above verses that the word “awraat” has nothing to do with women. In the Quran women are called “nisa.” Although women are vulnerable to attack by unrighteous men, God protects believing women who follow His commandments.

Whether we are created in the form of a man or woman, we are responsible individually in following God’s commandments. We learn from the Quran that we all are equal in the sight of God. Therefore,

what will distinguish us in the Hereafter will not be our gender, race or color, but our righteousness:

O people, we created you from the same male and female, and rendered you distinct peoples and tribes, that you may recognize one another. The best among you in the sight of God is the most righteous. God is Omniscient, Cognizant. [49:13]

Senobar Tafozali & Naima Turner

HIJAAB-THE UNVEILED MYSTERY

And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their bosoms, and not to reveal their adornment. And turn unto God together, O believers, in order that ye may succeed. (Qur’an, An-Nur-24: 31)

That will be better, so that (Muslim woman) may be recognized and not annoyed. God is ever Forgiving, Merciful. (Qur’an, Al-Ahzab-33: 59)

American Muslim women today are rediscovering the pristine Islaam as revealed by Allaah, God, to the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, more than 1,400 years ago but without any of the contradictions of ancestral culture. Consequently they are essentially engaging in a life-long exercise of rediscovering their own selves – what it means to be a human, a Muslim, and more so, a Muslim woman. Wearing the Divinely Mandated hijaab, the veil, as a part of their everyday dresses is among the first steps toward this rediscovery. In a society which shamelessly publicly exposes a woman’s body and intimate requirements where nudity somehow symbolizes the expression of a woman’s freedom and where the most lustful desires of men are fulfilled unchecked – it is little wonder such an introspection leads many Muslim women to the decision to wear hijaab

However, generalizations about Islaam and Muslims are replete in today’s media and, by extension, in the minds of many Americans who shape their image of the world through the media. Veiled Muslim women are typically unfairly stigmatized. They are regarded on the one hand as suppressed and oppressed, and on the other, as fanatics and fundamentalists. Both depictions are grossly wrong and imprecise. Such portrayals not only misrepresent these women’s strong feelings towards hijab, but also fail to acknowledge their courage and the resulting identity hijab lends to them. Amongst such misconceptions is also the belief that any Muslim woman who wears hijab is forced to do so. Nothing could be further from the truth. Indeed, the final determination to wear hijaab is often not easily reached. Days of meditation, an inevitable fear of consequences and reactions, and ultimately, plenty of courage weigh heavily in reaching the decision. Wearing hijaab is a very personal and independent decision, coming from appreciating the wisdom underlying Allaah’s command and a sincere wish to please Him.

“I believe hijaab is pleasing to Allaah, or I wouldn’t wear it. I believe there is something deep down beautiful and dignified about it. It has brought some beautiful and joyous dimension to my life that always amaze me,” said Mohja Kahf, assistant professor of English and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, in an internet posting.

“To me hijaab is a gift from Allaah. It gives me the opportunity to become closer to Allaah. Also quite importantly, (it provides me) the chance to stand and be recognized as a Muslim,” Fariha Khan, 18, of Rockville,

Maryland, said. However, with this recognition comes tremendous responsibility as highly visible representatives of Islaam and Muslims. Anywhere covered sisters go, Muslims and non-Muslims alike recognize them as followers of Islaam. In a land where misinformation about Islaam and Muslims abounds, Muslim sisters have the opportunity to portray Islaam in its true light. But the greatest responsibility related to hijaab is the understanding that there is more to hijaab than just the scarf; the internalized modesty really matters. This internal moral system gives meaning to the external scarf. This can be perceived from the overall demeanor of any Muslim woman – how she acts, dresses, speaks, and so on. Only when the internalized modesty manifests itself through the external hijaab can sisters represent Muslims according to the beautiful example set by the Prophet, upon whom be peace, and followed by his companions.

“Hijaab by itself is just a piece of cloth, at some level. I do not think we should take (it) as an exclusive marker of a woman’s moral worth or level of faith. It is the surrounding context – the etiquette, the morals – which make it anything” Kahf said.

Saba M. Baig, 21, is a recent graduate of Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. She was 17 when she seriously started wearing hijab, and feels she is still in the process of learning internal hijab. “My biggest realization was that hijaab was not just about wearing a scarf on my head, but more of a (veil) on my heart,” said Baig. “Hijaab is more than an external covering. That’s the easy part of it all. It has a lot (more) to do with modesty and just the way you present yourself.”

“In this life, I couldn’t think of anything better than being a Muslim. Wearing hijaab signifies it and reminds me of it. Hijaab is important to me and it means everything to me when I wear it,” Khan said.

“Unfortunately, it also has its down side: you get discriminated against, treated as though you are oppressed. I wear it for (Allaah), and because I want to. Period,” said Imaan, a convert to Islaam, currently studying in Australia.

Yet, the general society, to some extent defines the image of hijaab. “The surrounding context can make it oppressive,” explained Kahf. “For example, in social contexts where observing hijaab includes (the practice) of separating women from the resources of society including education, mosques, sources of religious and spiritual guidance, economic livelihood, etc., (hijaab) develops oppressive qualities. Or when hijaab is literally imposed through punitive sanctions rather than encouraged benignly, this distorts the underlying beauty of hijaab and turns it into something ugly. “I believe hijaab is pleasing to Allaah, or I wouldn’t wear it. I believe there is something deep down beautiful and dignified about it. It has brought some beautiful and joyous dimension to my life that always amaze me.”

“(At the same time,) the surrounding context can make it liberating, as we in the United States often experience. For many of us, in a society which imposes degrees of sexualized nakedness on women, wearing hijaab has been a liberating experience. To us hijaab has meant non-conformism to unjust systems of thought. We have experienced social sanctions for wearing it, and these experiences are seared in our memories, rather than experiences of being forced to wear it,” Kahf concluded.

For many women hijaab is a constant reminder that unlike other women they should not have to design their lives and bodies for men. “Before I started covering, I thought of myself based on what others thought of me. I see that too often in girls, their happiness depends on how others view them, especially men. Ever since, my opinion of myself has changed so much; I have gained (a lot of) self-respect. I have realized whether others may think of me as beautiful is not what matters. How beautiful I think of myself and knowing that Allah finds me beautiful makes me feel beautiful, said Baig softly, her eyes glowing.

Furthermore, modest clothing and hijaab are precautions to avoid any social violations. Contrary to popular belief, this is not limited to women only. Preceding the verse in the Qur’ân about women lowering their gaze comes the following verse, “Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and be modest. That is purer for them. Lo! Allah is Aware of what they do.” (24:30). In addition, on the authority of Sahl ibn Sa’d, may Allah be pleased with him, the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whoever can guarantee (the chastity of) what is between his two jaw-bones (the tongue) and what is between his two legs (the private parts), I guarantee Paradise for him.” (Bukhari).

Hijaab is not worn for men, to keep their illicit desires in check. Rather, Muslim women wear it for God and their own selves. Islaam is a religion of moderation, of balance between extremes. Therefore, it does not expect women alone to uphold the society’s morality and uprightness. Rather, Islaam asks men and women to mutually strive to create a healthy social environment where children may grow with positive, beautiful, constructive and practical values and concepts. Men are equally required to be modest and to conduct themselves responsibly in every sphere of their lives. In fact, in this society, enough emphasis cannot be placed on the necessity for men to keep their gaze lowered, as a concerned brother put it. “Think about it — what has the potential to cause more damage a sister otherwise modestly dressed but no scarf, or a brother who goes about gawking in the streets, (or) on campus? I cannot exactly quantify it, but guess the latter,” he said.

According to Jabir ibn Abdullah, when he asked the Prophet, peace be upon him, about a man’s gaze falling inadvertently on a strange woman, the Prophet replied, “Turn your eyes away.” (Muslim) In another tradition, the Prophet, on whom be peace, chided Ali for looking again at a woman – he said, the second glance is from Shaitan. The concept of modesty and hijaab in Islam is holistic, and encompasses both men and women. The ultimate goal is to maintain societal stability and to please God. Since Muslim women are more conspicuous because of their appearance, it is easier for people to associate them with the warped images they see in the print and broadcast media. Hence, stereotypes are perpetuated and often sisters seem “mysterious” to those not acquainted with Muslim women who dress according to Divine instructions. This aura of “mystery” cannot be removed until their lifestyles, beliefs and thought-systems are genuinely explored. And, frankly, this cannot be achieved until one is not afraid to respectfully approach Muslim women – or any Muslim for that matter. So, the next time you see a Muslim, stop and talk to him or her – you’ll feel, God-Willing, as if you’re entering a different world, the world of Islam: full of humility, piety, and of course, modesty!

by Saulat Pervez

Misconceptions about women in Islam (Submission)

An Editiorial by:
Dr. Fatimah Majidi, Nader Abbas Maudodi and Chris Abdul-Rahman

There are widespread erroneous misconception about the status of women in Islam (Submission.) This misconception was augmented by some newsmedia that made little effort to correct their understanding before broadcasting their views on this matter. Adding to this misconception are the regrettable practices in most so called “Islamic” countries or societies where myths, traditions and innovations have won over the true Islamic (Quranic) teachings and where women are traditionally subdued and oppressed. In this presentation we will try to clarify the position of the true Islam (Submission) on the status of women. We will list the misconceptions then comment on every issue accordingly.

(1)Muslim women have to wear the veil: This is a very common misconception, as Quran does not command the veil (Hijab). Wearing the veil is a tradition and is only supported by the man-made books of Hadiths and Sunna. These books do not represent the words of Allah in the Quran and on many occasions contradict them. Please see: Women Dress code in Islam.

(2) Islam encourages wife beating: On the contrary, Quran uses the best psychological approach to discourage this widespread abuse that is widespread in both Islamic and non-Islamic societies. Please see: Domestic violence, Wife abuse and beating, a Quranic Perspective.

(3) The woman inherits only half what a man can inherit: This is a common misconception even among the traditional Muslims themselves. Quran gives the parents total freedom to give their children as much as they see fit even if this means giving the females double what the males would get. Quran, however, commands that if a will is NOT left, then the estate is distributed in such a manner that the son gets double what the daughter gets. Generally, the son is responsible for a family, while the daughter is taken care of by a husband or her family. However, the Quran recommends in 2:180 that a will shall be left to conform with the specific circumstances of the deceased. For example, if the son is rich and the daughter is poor, one may leave a will giving the daughter everything, or twice as much as the son.

(4)The woman’s testimony. is equal only to half of the man’s testimony: This is a gross mis-representation. The woman testimony is equal to the man’s testimony except in one case only, the financial transactions. This is according to 2:282;

[ 2:282] O you who believe, when you transact a loan for any period, you shall write it down. An impartial scribe shall do the writing. …….. Two men shall serve as witnesses; if not two men, then a man and two women whose testimony is acceptable to all. Thus, if one woman becomes biased, the other will remind her. It is the obligation of the witnesses to testify when called upon to do so. ……

Financial transactions are the ONLY situations where two women may substitute for one man as witness. This is to guard against the real possibility that one witness may marry the other witness, and thus cause her to be biased. It is a recognized fact that women are more emotionally vulnerable than men. If the woman as a witness was worth half that of a man, the verse would have stated so clearly. But obviously that is not the case. Women’s testimony in all other matters are equal to that of a man or even supersedes his testimony as in the case of a wife testifying against her accusation of adultery, 24:6-10. See also, 65:2, 5:106 and 4:6

(5)Muslim woman cannot have jobs outside their homes: This also is not true. The social structure in the East where Islam (Submission) prevails encourages the woman to make her house her first priority but there is no prohibition whatsoever on women having to work and earn their living. The Muslim (submitter) woman has been given the privilege to earn money, the right to own property, to enter into legal contracts and to manage all of her assets in any way she pleases. She can hold a job or run her own business and no one has any claim on her earnings including her husband. Historically, Muhammed’s first wife was a merchant who hired Muhammed to work for her. Muslim women went along with their husbands, fathers and brothers during battles to take care of the wounded and help in the back lines of the troops..

(6)Polygamy is strongly recommended: This is one of the most common misconceptions about Islam (Submission.) Quran strongly discourages polygamy. Polygamy was a way of life until the Quran was revealed 1400 years ago. It was advocated and practiced by the followers of the previous scriptures. Quran came to put the first scriptural limit on polygamy and discourages it as much as possible. Please see; Polygamy, the right way In all the scriptures, the men were allowed to have more than one wife and not vise verse, since the idea of polygamy then was to populate the earth. As we know a woman can be pregnant only once a year even if she is married to four men but one man can have four children in the process at the same time if he is married to four wives. Polygamy was never meant to be abused for sexual pleasure or prove superiority. The emotional make up of a man makes him acceptable to polygamy and the opposite is true for women who prefer a monogamous relationship.

(7)Men status is higher than that of the women : Again this is not true. Many writers who wrote about women’s rights refer to the statement in 4:34 as a sign of the man is above the women in status but it is a misunderstood statement. In 4:34, the expression “..al-rijalu qawwdmuna ‘ala al-nisa’i…. ” means “The men are made responsible for the women, and GOD has endowed them with certain qualities, and made them the bread earners.” This expression simply means that God is appointing the husband as “captain of the ship.” Marriage is like a ship, and the captain runs it after due consultation with his officers. It does not assign inequality but rather assigns duties to avoid conflicts and disputes.

Quran provides every possible proof that women and men are equal in th sight of God and treats both genders in the same way and rewards them in the same way. Please see; Are women and men equal in Islam? , Women in the religion of Submission (Islam) and Blame it on Eve. !.

(8) Muslim Women cannot have education: This is not true. Qur’an encourages the pursuit of knowledge by all Muslims (Submitters) regardless of their sex. It repeatedly commands all believers to read, to recite, to think, to contemplate, as well as to learn from the signs of God surrounding us in nature. In fact, the very first revelation to Prophet Muhammad was “READ” and the second revelation talked about God who teaches the people by the “PEN”. In either case no gender is advocated, the order is for everyone. Islam (Submission) does not put any limit on the kind or field of education a woman may choose. Islamic history still has the mark of few women scholars

(9)Women cannot share in the political life in their communities: This also is not true. Women in Islam (Submission) have the right to vote, express their views on any public matter, run for an office and even be the head of a state.See 60:12, 27:22-44 Please see; Women and Politics in Islam and The record set straight: Women in Islam have rights.

(10)Women cannot pray, fast, do Hajj or Ummrah during menstruation: This misconception is even common among women who follow the traditional Islam that derives many of its laws from man-made books. This is totally against the teachings of the Quran. Please see; Religious Duties and Menstruation . A question/ answer report.

(11)Women are stoned to death for Adultery : This is totally false as there is NO death penalty for adultery in Islam (Submission). The penalty of adultery is equal for both men and women, and involves symbolic lashing. Social pressure, i.e., public witnessing of the penalty, is the basic punishment see 24:1-2

(12)Muslim women cannot marry Jewish or Christian men: This common misconception is advocated and promoted by men but have no basis in the Quran. Quran gives both men and women the right to marry from the people of the book, i.e. Muslims (Submitters), Jews or Christians. God also reminds us that the marriage to a believer is much better than the marriage to an idolworshiper. See 5:5 and 2:221. See also; Marriage in the Quran, and A Marriage question and answer from the Quran.

(13)Muslim women do not have the right to divorce their husbands: This is not true. Divorce laws in the Quran apply to both men and women equally. Women have the right to divorce their husbands as long as they follow the laws set in the Quran. Please see; Divorce according to the Quran.

(14)Compensation for the murder of a woman is half the going rate for men: This is totally false as both men and women are equally treated and compensated according to the Quran. Such laws are found in the fabricated books of Hadiths and Sunna and they are not the laws of God in the Quran.See 2:178.

(15)For a woman to prove rape, four adult males of “impeccable” character must witness the incident: This a gross misunderstanding of this law. Like any civil law in the civilized world, Quran urges a proof beyond doubt for such a horrendous crime. Quran accepts a proof of a crime if the proof is beyond doubt, e.g. see 12:75. Therefore although the verses of adultery which is used in cases of rape are applied, a proof beyond doubt, e.g. DNA of the offender should be an acceptable proof instead of four witnesses in these cases. Insisting on four witnesses when the other proof is beyond doubt is NOT Quranic.

(16)The legal age for girls to marry tends to be very young: This is not an Islamic law but local tribal or cultural tradition. In reality Islam (Submission) expects marriage to be established on mutual understanding, acceptance and approval. Such requirements cannot be achieved in the very young girls (or boys). Maturity, mentally, emotionally and physically is the rule in Islam (Submission) before marriage. The story of prophet Muhammed marrying his wife Aysha when she was only six is a gross lie that can be found in the Hadiths books that are full of many other similar lies that do not represent Islam (Submission.) Please see; Prophet Muhammed’s marriage to Aysha.

(17)Female circumcision, also called female genital mutilation: Quran does not mention nor advocates female circumcision and all the rituals that go with it. This is NOT an Islamic practice by all means. This practice predates Muhammad and is also common among some Christian communities.

(18) Muslim women are not allowed to drive: Again this is not Islamic law but rather a local tradition in some of these so called “Islamic” countries. Quran has no restriction on the women moving freely in the society, whether this includes riding a horse, driving a car or flying an aeroplane. Local laws that require the women to be accompanied by a male relative whenever they travel are traditional laws that have NO basis in the Quran.

(19) Typically, fathers win custody of boys over the age of six and girls after the onset of puberty: This is only a local law that is not supported by the Quran. Cases of custody are to be decided on a case by case basis with the interest of the children being the priority in any judgment. God puts a great emphasis on protecting the right of the weak and unprotected kids, please see; 6:151-152, 17:31, 17:34, 2:233, 6:140, 60:12, 4:127, 4:2, 4:10, 33:5, 93:9, 2:215, …..

(20) Women must be segregated form men in public, work and places of worship: This is a common misconception even among some Muslims but has NO basis in the Quran. On the contrary, God meant for the women and men to be together with NO segregation whether in public, work or worship places. Hajj (pilgrimage) is a vivid example of how women and men are not segregated and worship in the same place, then go ahead with their lives and practice commerce after Hajj with no limits..

(21) “honor killings” of women: Murders by husbands or male relatives of women suspected of disobedience, usually a sexual indiscretion or marriage against the family’s wishes. These are tribal laws, not Islamic laws. There is no such thing as HONOR killing in Islam (Submission.) All killings are condemned in the Quran. in the strongest language possible. Please see; 5:32, 6:151 and 17:33. Punishment for these killers will follow the same general rules in the Quran and would not get a lighter sentence for his claims even if they were true. After all, these killers violated the sacred laws of God in the Quran. The punishment in the Quran is based always on an attempt to save lives not to waste lives. Please see Capital Punishment in Islam.

(22) “Morality Police” keeps control on the behaviour of women: Islam (Submission) does not assign police for morality as such character is not created by force but rather by understanding of God’s laws in the Quran. The practice of the so called “Morality Police” is a total innovation of some of these so called “Islamic” countries but has nothing to do with Islam (Submission.)

(23) Women cannot travel freely except in the company of a male relative, “mahram”: This is a man made fabrication that has no support in the Quran. According to the Quran, women have no limitations on their moves, travels or activities. Men who hire themsleves guards on the women’s moves do this out of their own wishes not beause of any religious law in the Quran.

The responsibility of women to enjoin good and forbid evil and its importance


Some people limit the responsibility to enjoin good and forbid evil to the role of men and not women, and make little of the importance and effect of women fulfilling this duty. Many texts have been revealed which indicate responsibility of women to enjoin good and forbid evil, as does the importance of women in this respect become apparent in many ways. In this section I will discuss this subject, with the help of Allah, under the following headings:1. The responsibility of women to enjoin good and forbid evil.
2. The importance of women fulfilling this duty.The responsibility for fulfilling the duty of enjoining good and forbidding evil becomes apparent in the light of the general texts which indicate the obligation of al-Hisba. Likewise, from these texts it becomes apparent that this responsibility clearly applies to women. As Allah wills, I will discuss this topic underneath these two headings:

1. The proof of texts regarding the duty to enjoin good and forbid evil.
2. The texts which clearly prove the responsibility of women in enjoin ing good and forbidding evil.

1. The proof of texts regarding the duty to enjoin good and forbid evil

Many texts from the Noble Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah have indicated the duty of enjoining good and forbidding evil.[1] The language form used in many of these texts, although masculine, also contains and applies to the feminine gender as explained by the scholars, may Allah have mercy on them. For example, Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah said, ‘It has been established in the custom of the Law giver that if a judgement is made in the masculine form, and is not accompanied with a feminine form, then it applies to both men and women, as the male gender is more dominant than the female gender when mentioned together, as in His statement:

“…and the witnessess should not refuse when they are called on…” [2]

and His statement:

“O You who believe! Fasting has been made compulsory for you.”[3,4]

2. The texts which clearly prove the responsibility of women in enjoining good and forbidding evil

There are texts in the Noble Qur’an and the authentic hadith which prove the responsibility of women in enjoining good and forbidding evil clearly. Among these texts are: 1. Allah’s statement:

“O Wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allah) then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire but speak in an honourable manner.” [5]

One of the most respected commentators of the Qur’an, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas says regarding the explanation of Allah’s statement: ‘and speak in an honourable manner’:

“He (Allah) ordered them to enjoin good and forbid evil.”[6]

No one should think that this order applies specifically to the Mothers of the Believers only (the wives of the Prophet (SAW ), as they are addressed in this verse, because although they are the ones addressed by this verse, the rest of the Muslim women are the intended also.

Regarding this, the Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas said:

“All these matters are matters by which Allah disciplined the wives of the Prophet (SAW), as an honour to them, and the rest of the women of the believers are meant by them”[7]

2. Allah’s statement:

“The believers, men and women are helpers/supporters of one another, they order good and forbid evil and offer their prayers perfectly and pay zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. They are the ones Allah will have mercy on. Indeed, Allah is Most Powerful, Most Wise. Allah has promised the believers – men and women – gardens underneath which rivers flow, where they will dwell forever -and beautiful mansions in Gardens of Paradise. But the greatest bliss is the Good Pleasure of Allah. That is the supreme success.” [8]

Allah, Most Glorious, mentioned five attributes, among them the fulfilment of enjoining good and forbidding evil, and made clear His promise of a great reward for those who have this attribute, and Allah made clear that the female believers can achieve this attribute as can the male believers, and that they have the promise of a good reward as do the male believers.

Imam Ibn an-Nuhas ad-Dimashqi said, ‘In Allah’s statement “…and believing women…” is a proof that to enjoin good and forbid evil is obligatory upon women in the same way as it is obligatory upon men, if they are capable.’[9]

1. Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim related from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said,

“Indeed are you not all guardians? And each of you is responsible for your flock: So the leader who is in authority over the people is a guardian, and he is responsible for his flock, and a man is guardian over the members of his house, and he is responsible for his flock, and the woman is a guardian over the members her husband’s household and his children, and she is responsible for them, and the man’s servant is a guardian over the wealth of his master and he responsible for it. Indeed, you are all guardians, and all of you are responsible for your flocks.”[10]

Imam al-Khattabi said: ‘The meaning of””guardian” here is: the protector and one entrusted with those under him, who orders them with advice/guidance, and warns them from betraying or wasting that which he has entrusted them with.[11]

So the circumstance of a woman being a guardian dictates that she undertake the duty of enjoining good and forbidding evil when good is neglected, or when evil occurs among those she is responsible for.

The woman will be asked, as will the others who are guardians, about this on the Day of Resurrection, as has been related in the noble hadith: “…and she is responsible for them”, and in the hadith related by Anas,

“Surely, Allah will ask every guardian about that which He made him a guardian over, whether he protected it or neglected it.”[12 ]

And in the hadith of Abu Hurayrah,

“Every guardian will be asked on the Day of Resurrection, (whether) he carried out the order of Allah or neglected it.”[13]

It is therefore incumbent upon the Muslim woman – as it is upon others who are responsible – to prepare for this question an answer, by fulfilling what Allah has obligated her with before the day upon which neither regret nor sorrow will be of help.


1 See some these texts in my book al-Hisba (pp.41-67)2 al-Baqarah 282.3 al-Baqarah 181.

4 Flam al-Muwaqqi’in 1/92-91, condensed.

5 al-Ahzab 12.

6 Taken from Tafsir al-Qurtubi 14/178.

7 Ahkam al-Qur’an 1/160.

8 at-Tawbah 71-72

9 Tanbih ai-Ghafilln an A ‘mat al-Jahilin (p.20).

10 Agreed upon. See Sahih al-Bukhari, The Book of Laws, [Chapter] Allah’s statement: “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in power.” No. 7117, 11/111. his wording, and Sahih Muslim, The Book of Leadership, [Chapter] The virtue of the Just Imam, No. 20(1829), 1/1159.

11 Ma’alim as-Sunan 1/2. See also Sharh an-Nawawi, in which it says, ‘The scholars say: the Ra’i (literally shepherd, or gaurdian) is the protector and guarantor who is obligated with the good of what he has undertaken and what is under his supervision. So in this, is that whoever supervises something, then he is required to be just toward it, and perform that which benefits it in its religion and worldly affairs, and all things related to it. 12/213.

12 Taken from fath al-Bari 13/113. Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar says about him, ‘…and from ibn ‘Adi with an authentic chain from Anas…’

13 Taken from the previous source 13/113- Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar says, ‘…he also has at- Tabarani in al-Awsat from the hadith of Abu Hurayrah…’

The responsibility of women to enjoin good and forbid evil and its importance

 
Some people limit the responsibility to enjoin good and forbid evil to the role of men and not women, and make little of the importance and effect of women fulfilling this duty. Many texts have been revealed which indicate responsibility of women to enjoin good and forbid evil, as does the importance of women in this respect become apparent in many ways. In this section I will discuss this subject, with the help of Allah, under the following headings:

1. The responsibility of women to enjoin good and forbid evil.
2. The importance of women fulfilling this duty.

The responsibility for fulfilling the duty of enjoining good and forbidding evil becomes apparent in the light of the general texts which indicate the obligation of al-Hisba. Likewise, from these texts it becomes apparent that this responsibility clearly applies to women. As Allah wills, I will discuss this topic underneath these two headings:

1. The proof of texts regarding the duty to enjoin good and forbid evil.
2. The texts which clearly prove the responsibility of women in enjoin ing good and forbidding evil.

1. The proof of texts regarding the duty to enjoin good and forbid evil

Many texts from the Noble Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah have indicated the duty of enjoining good and forbidding evil.[1] The language form used in many of these texts, although masculine, also contains and applies to the feminine gender as explained by the scholars, may Allah have mercy on them. For example, Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah said, ‘It has been established in the custom of the Law giver that if a judgement is made in the masculine form, and is not accompanied with a feminine form, then it applies to both men and women, as the male gender is more dominant than the female gender when mentioned together, as in His statement:

“…and the witnessess should not refuse when they are called on…” [2]

and His statement:

“O You who believe! Fasting has been made compulsory for you.”[3,4]

2. The texts which clearly prove the responsibility of women in enjoining good and forbidding evil

There are texts in the Noble Qur’an and the authentic hadith which prove the responsibility of women in enjoining good and forbidding evil clearly. Among these texts are: 1. Allah’s statement:

“O Wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allah) then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire but speak in an honourable manner.” [5]

One of the most respected commentators of the Qur’an, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas says regarding the explanation of Allah’s statement: ‘and speak in an honourable manner’:

“He (Allah) ordered them to enjoin good and forbid evil.”[6]

No one should think that this order applies specifically to the Mothers of the Believers only (the wives of the Prophet (SAW ), as they are addressed in this verse, because although they are the ones addressed by this verse, the rest of the Muslim women are the intended also.

Regarding this, the Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas said:

“All these matters are matters by which Allah disciplined the wives of the Prophet (SAW), as an honour to them, and the rest of the women of the believers are meant by them”[7]

2. Allah’s statement:

“The believers, men and women are helpers/supporters of one another, they order good and forbid evil and offer their prayers perfectly and pay zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. They are the ones Allah will have mercy on. Indeed, Allah is Most Powerful, Most Wise. Allah has promised the believers – men and women – gardens underneath which rivers flow, where they will dwell forever -and beautiful mansions in Gardens of Paradise. But the greatest bliss is the Good Pleasure of Allah. That is the supreme success.” [8]

Allah, Most Glorious, mentioned five attributes, among them the fulfilment of enjoining good and forbidding evil, and made clear His promise of a great reward for those who have this attribute, and Allah made clear that the female believers can achieve this attribute as can the male believers, and that they have the promise of a good reward as do the male believers.

Imam Ibn an-Nuhas ad-Dimashqi said, ‘In Allah’s statement “…and believing women…” is a proof that to enjoin good and forbid evil is obligatory upon women in the same way as it is obligatory upon men, if they are capable.’[9]

1. Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim related from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said,

“Indeed are you not all guardians? And each of you is responsible for your flock: So the leader who is in authority over the people is a guardian, and he is responsible for his flock, and a man is guardian over the members of his house, and he is responsible for his flock, and the woman is a guardian over the members her husband’s household and his children, and she is responsible for them, and the man’s servant is a guardian over the wealth of his master and he responsible for it. Indeed, you are all guardians, and all of you are responsible for your flocks.”[10]

Imam al-Khattabi said: ‘The meaning of””guardian” here is: the protector and one entrusted with those under him, who orders them with advice/guidance, and warns them from betraying or wasting that which he has entrusted them with.[11]

So the circumstance of a woman being a guardian dictates that she undertake the duty of enjoining good and forbidding evil when good is neglected, or when evil occurs among those she is responsible for.

The woman will be asked, as will the others who are guardians, about this on the Day of Resurrection, as has been related in the noble hadith: “…and she is responsible for them”, and in the hadith related by Anas,

“Surely, Allah will ask every guardian about that which He made him a guardian over, whether he protected it or neglected it.”[12 ]

And in the hadith of Abu Hurayrah,

“Every guardian will be asked on the Day of Resurrection, (whether) he carried out the order of Allah or neglected it.”[13]

It is therefore incumbent upon the Muslim woman – as it is upon others who are responsible – to prepare for this question an answer, by fulfilling what Allah has obligated her with before the day upon which neither regret nor sorrow will be of help.


1 See some these texts in my book al-Hisba (pp.41-67)

2 al-Baqarah 282.

3 al-Baqarah 181.

4 Flam al-Muwaqqi’in 1/92-91, condensed.

5 al-Ahzab 12.

6 Taken from Tafsir al-Qurtubi 14/178.

7 Ahkam al-Qur’an 1/160.

8 at-Tawbah 71-72

9 Tanbih ai-Ghafilln an A ‘mat al-Jahilin (p.20).

10 Agreed upon. See Sahih al-Bukhari, The Book of Laws, [Chapter] Allah’s statement: “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in power.” No. 7117, 11/111. his wording, and Sahih Muslim, The Book of Leadership, [Chapter] The virtue of the Just Imam, No. 20(1829), 1/1159.

11 Ma’alim as-Sunan 1/2. See also Sharh an-Nawawi, in which it says, ‘The scholars say: the Ra’i (literally shepherd, or gaurdian) is the protector and guarantor who is obligated with the good of what he has undertaken and what is under his supervision. So in this, is that whoever supervises something, then he is required to be just toward it, and perform that which benefits it in its religion and worldly affairs, and all things related to it. 12/213.

12 Taken from fath al-Bari 13/113. Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar says about him, ‘…and from ibn ‘Adi with an authentic chain from Anas…’

13 Taken from the previous source 13/113- Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar says, ‘…he also has at- Tabarani in al-Awsat from the hadith of Abu Hurayrah…’